The year 1994 saw a consolidation of the place and role of the Institute within the Department of Plant Sciences. The internal and external missions approved by the Hirsch Working Party and the University's Advisory Committee for Forestry in 1993 were pursued with support from the Head of Department. This involved rationalizing allocations of facilities and in refurbishing laboratories, computing resources and the library. These activities were undertaken to provide the basis for the four groups of activities accepted in the Institute's strategy, namely: education and training; research; library and information services; and advisory and consultancy services.
The continued efforts of all staff and the improved integration of the Institute within the Department have maintained the excellent reputation of the OFI and I thank everyone for their contributions.
Dr Jeffery Burley
A total of 23 students successfully completed the MSc course Forestry and its Relation to Land Use in September and 25 enrolled in October for the 1994-95 course. Six of the students came from overseas (Australia, two from India, Kenya, Malaysia and USA). Virtually all of the British candidates had considerable experience overseas before starting the course. As in all recent courses, the students publicized their experiences in a series of evening seminars at Green College. The OFI provided a network of Pentium-based computers, principally for MSc course participants.
The Plant Science Department had 53 DPhil and MSc research students registered at the start of the academic year; of these, 16 were supervised by OFI staff. Two doctorates were awarded during 1994. Five new research students supervised by OFI staff commenced during the year. All these students reflected the tropical interests of the Institute. Staff of the Institute continued to contribute significantly to three of the most popular options in the undergraduate biological sciences course - Ecology and Conservation, Green Plants, and Plants: Productivity and the Environment. Dr Alan Grafen, despite a well-earned sabbatical leave, continued to provide teaching in the quantitative methods course for all biologists and an introduction to statistics for the MSc course.
The summer vacation course on Forestry Research Methodswas offered jointly by the OFI and Reading University; the first half, at Reading, covered the basic statistical methods and concepts while the second half, at Oxford, addressed the special requirements for forestry and the essential computer application packages available.
It was decided to remodel the long-running courses in Rural Development Forestry and Planning and Management in Forestry because of the low rate of applications in the preceding year. A new, shorter course Making Forest Policy Work has been created in cooperation with the International Institute for Environment and Development, London, and SGS Forestry, Oxford. The reorganization was completed too late to attract sufficient numbers of participants in 1994 and the course will be provided for the first time in 1995. It is intended not just for line managers but also for senior policy-makers from a range of different Ministries and agencies whose policies affect forests and forest policy.
A special course on biodiversity assessment and monitoring was provided jointly by OFI and the Natural History Museum; it was financed by the Darwin Initiative of the Department of Environment and attracted ten participants from the four tropical institutions with which the OFI has ODA-funded academic and research links.
Research continued on 28 projects financed by ODA, five by EC, and one each by CIFOR, FAO, ITTO and NATO. The bulk of these (22) concerned the general field of biodiversity, forest genetics and taxonomy. The remaining 15 included tropical forest ecology, forest management, mycology and pathology, socioeconomics, and wood properties and processing. In addition, some doctoral research was financed by CIFOR, the Royal Society and United Distillers. Progress on each of these is summarized in the individual research sections of this annual report.
The relationships between taxonomic and genetic research throughout the Department were intensified, particularly through the Taxonomy Forum, the refurbishment of herbaria and laboratories, the establishment of the molecular genetics laboratory under the leadership of Dr Stephen Harris, and the publication of issues of the highly informative Oxford Plant Systematics newsletter produced by Mr Denis Filer.
During 1994 a revised policy for the library and information services was established. It is no longer practical for the OFI to attempt to obtain and store the majority of the world's forestry literature. It is not possible to sustain this historical commitment in terms of space, staff or operating costs without significant external support. The policy is thus threefold: to restrict holdings to those that are required for Departmental teaching and research; to seek resources (and, where needed, legal permission) to transfer as many of the holdings as possible to electronic formats, especially the Department's Internet World Wide Web Server, and to seek to identify other libraries with major forestry holdings that could collaborate in a network. The Director is currently approaching the specialist information research groups within IUFRO on this topic.
The agreement with CABI was renewed for another year and it was agreed to review and renegotiate it again in 1995. Under the agreement the two organizations continue to seek support for the accession, abstracting, document delivery and, now, conversion to electronic form, of the most important literature. In addition they will continue to work on value-added information including CD-ROM compendia on specialized topics or species monographs. The support of CIFOR throughout the year has been welcome and is fully acknowledged.
Considerable investment of time and funds was put into the establishment of a Departmental World-Wide-Web Server within the Internet, largely orchestrated by Dr Andrew Speedy and Mr Nick Waltham. This provides the worldwide dissemination of Institute and Departmental news, information and publications that are consulted by large numbers of Web users each day.
The Institute continued to manage ODA's Forestry Research Programme (formerly called the Forestry and Agroforestry Research Strategy Programme).This involved 82 active projects in 1994 of which the OFI and other Oxford Departments undertook 39 per cent.
The OFI also continued to manage four "Link projects" that provide academic and research collaboration between British and overseas institutions. One of the two largest involved the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; staff and students were exchanged for short periods and a major workshop was held in November 1994 that was attended by some 60 participants of whom nearly half were former or present OFI staff or students. The second link project managed by the OFI involved 12 British universities with the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and concentrated on research to support the sustainable management of southeast Asian rain forests.
The OFI Director and the links manager, Dr Phil Bacon, collaborated with an external consultant (Dr R Z Callaham, formerly US Forest Service Station Director) in providing a workshop on research management at the Institute for Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India.
Two ODA Resource Centre Schemes are now in place under the terms of which the Institute contracts to provide an agreed number of days for advice and consultancy to ODA advisory staff and geographic desks.
During 1994 the Institute was saddened to hear of the death of Mr George Gibson, a long-term former member of the Forest Genetics Group, an OFI MSc graduate and, at the time, a lecturer in Edinburgh University. George died in an accident on Ben Nevis in Scotland while pursuing his passion for mountaineering; the whole world of tropical forestry and forest genetics is the poorer.
Dr Frank White died in 1994 after a prolonged illness; he was University Lecturer in Taxonomy and Curator of the Herbaria for nearly 40 years. Among his many publications were forest floras for Malawi and Zambia, the UNESCO vegetation map for Africa, and monographic treatments of several groups including the Ebenaceae.
We also record with great sadness the loss of Dr Dick Pawsey who died early in 1995 as this report was being compiled; he served many years in the Institute as Forest Pathologist.
Two members of staff resigned at the end of the year; Dr Tony Simons was appointed as a project coordinator in ICRAF, Nairobi, a post in which he hopes to maintain close links with the Institute. Miss Olivia Webley took up a post of forestry adviser to CARE in Tanzania where she will be particularly involved in refugee support.
Dr Peter Kanowski has been appointed to the Chair of Forestry at the Australian National University, Canberra, with effect from September 1995; staff of the OFI congratulate him on this appointment and have begun the search for a replacement.
The Institute was delighted at the appointment of Dr Nick Brown as the University Lecturer in Tropical Forest Ecology and Management. We also welcomed Mr Nick Waltham, a specialist in information technology, to work with Dr Andrew Speedy in developing the World-Wide-Web Server for the Department and Institute.
The Institute also regrets the resignation of the Departmental Demonstrator in Taxonomy, Dr Quentin Cronk, an Associate Member of the OFI, who has been appointed to a senior post in Edinburgh University and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
Restructuring of the Library and Information Service staffing was completed during the year. Mrs Judith Pinfold was appointed to a new professional post, while Miss Kate Knox , Mrs Sylvia Hastings and Miss Alison Bunney joined the clerical staff; Mrs Cecily Lau and Miss Sophie James left. In addition the University funded a consultant, Mr Peter Jackson, for one year to assist in library re-organisation, together with a temporary professional post for retrospective cataloguing; this was filled by Miss Jane Stemp.
The Director and several members of staff gave various public lectures, television and radio interviews in the UK and overseas. The Institute again received several hundred visitors during the year including the Minister for Agriculture, South Africa; Mr A.K. Mukerji, Inspector General of Forests, India; Mr Shyam Sunder, Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Karnataka, India; Professor H.P. Gunasena, Dean of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; the Rectors of three Indonesian universities and Mr A.J. Bennett, Chief Natural Resources Adviser, ODA.
Departmental staff financed by the University and directly concerned with the Oxford Forestry Institute
Staff of the CAB International Forestry Department
Professional foresters and scientists available for Institutional consultancies or concerned with ODA activities
The Biological Sciences degree offers a wide choice of options embracing both pure and more applied aspects of biology, enabling candidates to specialise in animal or plant sciences, or to take a more biologically integrated course.
The school is made up of four main components:
Staff of the Institute contribute to several of the more applied and plant based options.
The Institute's one-year taught MSc, now in its twenty-second year, continues to be highly regarded. Major elements of the course are some 20 lecture and seminar series, a forest management exercise, and a dissertation. Substantial contributions from many Institute staff and visitors who do not have formal University teaching responsibilities ensure that the course maintains its breadth and depth, and that the wide range of students' interests (typified, for example, by the variety of dissertation topics listed) can be addressed satisfactorily. One of the great teaching strengths of the OFI is the recent first-hand experience so many staff have of conditions in other countries, especially in the tropics. In 1994 members of staff visited 41 countries.
Demand for admission from well-qualified applicants remains high, at around four times the number of places available; 25 students were admitted to the 1994/95 class. As in previous years, one of the great strengths of the class is the diversity of its membership, in terms of both the subject of first degree and subsequent experience. Three quarters of the students are British, most with first degrees in the biological sciences or geography. Those from overseas come from Australia, India, Kenya, Malaysia and the USA. As with preceding classes, most 1993/94 graduates readily found employment in Britain or abroad.
ODA-sponsored link arrangements with the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, and CATIE, Costa Rica, provided excellent opportunities for five members of the 1993/94 class to participate in ODA-sponsored collaborative research programmes, to mutual benefit. The Institute wishes to record its thanks to staff of the University of Peradeniya, to CATIE, and to ODA staff associated with those institutions, whose co-operation and assistance made these activities feasible. We also thank many others elsewhere, particularly the staff of CONSEFORH in Honduras, who provided opportunities for intending MSc students to gain the necessary pre-course experience.
The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ernest Cook Trust and the UK Government's Overseas Development Administration continued to be the major sources of financial support for British students following the course; in 1994, all three renewed their commitment to supporting our students. The Hosier Fund and Lloyd studentship, both associated with Linacre College, were also major contributors in three cases. Other sponsors included the Russell Grimwade scholarship (Australia), the Queen's College, St. Cross College (Osmaston Scholarship) and the Rhodes Trust.
The dissertations submitted were entitled:
Ms K. Adam, Green College
Maesopsis eminii in the East Usambara mountains, Tanzania: the dilemma of invasive species
Mr A. Ahuja, Queen's College
Measuring and monitoring forest plant biodiversity
Mr M. Allison, St Cross College
Poplar in the UK
Ms B. Ambrose, Wolfson College
The potential role of indigenous knowledge in participatory approaches to natural forest management and conservation, with case studies from Cameroon
Mr L. Apedaile, Green College
Prospects for community based forest management in British Columbia
Ms N. Baker, Lady Margaret Hall
The cultural significance of palms in agroecosystems
Mr J. Bampton, Pembroke College
Stakeholder analysis of British forestry and the options for ownership and management of the State forests
Ms P. Bird, St Cross College
Gender and participatory development: problems and potential for change
Ms S. Dipper, St Cross College
Integrating forest conservation and rural development in Cameroon
Ms B. Fidalgo, Linacre College
Contribution for forest land use and planning in Arganil (a council in central Portugal)
Mr A. Gerrand
An analysis of two community forest projects in Nepal: some practical lessons and theoretical concepts
Mr A. Lamb
Attitudes of owners to woodlands in England - a review of reasons for neglect and a pilot survey of owners
Ms A. Malos
Issues in tropical forestry/agroforestry research for development in UK based institutes
Mr D. Mauambeta
The role of fruit trees in farming systems in Eastern and Southern Africa
Ms P. McElwee
Common property and commercialisation: developing appropriate tools for analysis
Ms R. Munden
The future of issues relevant to independent timber certification in Britain
Mr V. Nicolescu
Artificial pruning: technical, productive and economic considerations - a review
Ms D. Perera
Restoration of degraded dry zone woodlands in Sri Lanka using natural regeneration
Ms C. Reid
The influence of management on habitat availability for saproxylic invertebrates in Pinus sylvestris forests
Ms T. Rusinow
Cloud deposition and its possible implications for high-altitude reforestation: a case study from Sri Lanka
Mr A. Smith
Forest cover in Zaire and the potential for change
Mr D. Thomas
Limiting the damage: forest concession and pricing reform in the humid tropics, with particular reference to Indonesia
Mr T. Watanabe
Sustainability of forestry projects. A comparison of the approaches of ODA and JICA
All members of the 1993/94 class successfully completed the course.
The Jubilee Prize
The Prize for 1994 was awarded to Mr James Bampton.
The current class, whose membership is listed below, began the year with a field trip to the Scottish borders, where individuals and agencies who had made previous visits so successful again welcomed us warmly.
Ms C. Buist, Wolfson College
Plant Science, Aberdeen
Mr J. Corbett, Wolfson College
Mr D. Curtin, Linacre College
Environmental Studies, Newcastle
Ms P. Davies, Green College
English Literature, Bristol
Ms D. Fisher, Merton College
Ms J. Gilhespy, Mansfield College
Mr A. Githitho, Queens College
Forestry, Moi, Kenya
Ms L. Gormley, St John's College
Ms C. Graham, Green College
Environmental Biology, Manchester
Mr J. Harkinson, Green College
Mr M. Henson, Green College
Applied Biology, London
Mr M. Jain, Linacre College
Forestry, Pantnagar, India
Mr A. Lugg, Trinity College
Forestry, Australian National University
Ms C. Luttrell, St Cross College
Mr D. Martin, St John's College
Pure & Applied Biology, Oxford
Mr A. Mathews, St Cross College
Ms F. Parker-Jervis, Linacre College
Plant/Soil Science, Aberdeen
Mr R. Paterson, Linacre College
Political Economy, Glasgow
Mr N. Rathore, Wolfson College
Econ/Geography/Eng, Himachal, India
Mr P. Sawal, Wolfson College
Forestry, Pertanian, Malaysia
Mr M. Smail, Wolfson College
Development Studies, East Anglia
Mr J. Sowerby, Linacre College
Ms N. Stewart, Green College
Mr A. Strawson, Keble College
Rural Resource Management, Reading
Ms T. Willard, Wolfson College
Science/Technology, Georgetown, USA
The MSc course benefits considerably from the contributions of many guest lecturers, whose presentations complement the core material presented by Institute staff. Those who spoke in 1994 were:
The class also benefitted from a number of one day field trips: we thank the Buckinghamshire County Council, Pryor & Rickett Silviculture, St Regis Paper Mill and Tilhill Economic Forestry for hosting these visits.
The OFI has, for many years, run annual specialist forestry courses of three months duration from early July through to late September. These courses are intended to augment the participants' skills and knowledge by bringing them up to date with the latest forest practices, technologies and techniques. The contents of the courses have been steadily updated to meet the changing requirements of those involved in the wide variety of roles and specialisms that modern forestry now requires, particularly in the tropics. Two courses were run in 1994: Research Methods in Forestryand Biodiversity: Exploration, Evaluation, Conservation and Monitoring . It was decided to remodel the long-running courses in Rural Development Forestry and Planning and Management in Forestry because of the low rate of applications in the preceding year. A new, shorter course Making Forest Policy Work was created in cooperation with the International Institute for Environment and Development, London, and SGS Forestry, Oxford. The reorganization was completed too late to attract sufficient numbers of participants in 1994 and the course will be provided for the first time in 1995. It is intended not just for line managers but also for senior policy-makers from a range of different Ministries and agencies whose policies affect forests and forest policy.
This was one of the first courses run in the Institute, the first being held in 1965, and has remained substantially the same over the years. In 1994, however, there was a radical and exciting change as it was carried out jointly with the Statistical Services Centre at the University of Reading who have been running vacation courses in statistics and experimental design for overseas agricultural and other students for a number of years. The overall objective remains the same in that the course is aimed at professionals who wish to acquire new skills and to catch up with new ideas and technologies in statistics, computing and forestry research.
Participants spent the first seven weeks of the course at Reading where they were taught the basic statistics of experimental design and analysis and the use of microcomputers. This was followed by five weeks at the Institute in Oxford. During this period the special problems of experimental design and analysis in forestry situations were covered. An information retrieval exercise using the library and an individual project were integral parts of the time spent in Oxford.
This joint course was well supported and judged by the participants to be successful. It will be run again in 1995, when it is hoped that it will be further improved following the experience of 1994.
A special course on biodiversity assessment and monitoring was provided jointly by OFI and the Natural History Museum; it was financed by the Darwin Initiative of the Department of Environment and attracted ten participants from the four tropical institutions with which the OFI has ODA-funded academic and research links.
Personal Professional Development Programmes
The OFI is able to arrange personal professional development programmes, in a wide range of subjects, for professionals who wish to study specific topics intensively. The length of a programme may be from two weeks to six months, according to the needs of the individual. These programmes are often organized for participants of the specialist training courses, but independent programmes can also be made at most times of the year. Several programmes were organized in 1994 for ODA TCO staff and staff of overseas institutions.
Sixteen of the research students registered in the Department of Plant Sciences in 1994 were working within the Institute; their work is described in subsequent sections of this report. Two students - Fernando Araujo and Mary Stockdale - successfully defended their DPhil theses in 1994.
Further information about the OFI's educational activities is available from Dr Peter Savill for undergraduate and postgraduate taught and research degrees, and Ms Kristina Plenderlith/Mrs Jackie Grant for non-degree courses and programmes.
Academic staff: Dr J. Burley, Dr N.D. Brown, Dr P.S. Savill
Research staff: Mr A.M. Heineman, Mr R.D. Sheil
Post doctoral research: Dr D. Burslem, Dr R.A. Mather
Technical staff: Mrs C.M. Surman
Research students: Mr F.D. Araujo, Miss I.M. Grundy, Mr S. Jennings, Mr J.M. Kishokumar,
Mr J.R. Mosedale, Mr J.M.S. Moss, Ms D. Perera, Miss M.C. Stockdale, Mr T.L. Waters,
Mr G. Viera
Nick Brown continued his exploration of the relationship between forest disturbance and the speed and composition of regeneration. Working in collaboration with researchers from Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal da Amazonia Oriental, Belem, Brazil, and Dr Tim Whitmore from Cambridge University, they are monitoring the response of mixed species seedling populations in the Tapajos National Forest to light and moisture stress. Parallel experiments are underway at Moju Forest where a commercial logging operation offers an opportunity to compare natural regeneration dynamics with post-logging recovery.
In Sri Lanka, Dhammika Perera has begun research work on the dynamics of soil seed banks in degraded dry tropical forest. This will complement current research work by the University of Peradeniya and OFI students on the natural forest ecology in the dry north and east of Sri Lanka. This has examined the phenology of a fire-dominated vegetation and strategies for rehabilitation of a truncated soil in the Victoria-Randenigala-Rantembe Sanctuary.
In Brunei, research work by Nick Brown in collaboration with Shell Brunei and the Brunei Forestry Department is attempting to accelerate recolonization of natural forest on sites cleared for exploratory oil drilling. The trials have demonstrated that fast-growing, exotic tree species can significantly improve site stability, but that they may inhibit natural vegetation colonization.
In September a major international conference on Vegetation and Slopes: Stabilization, Protection and Ecology, was jointly organized by the OFI, the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. Held at the University Museum in Oxford, the conference attracted nearly two hundred delegates and will result in the publication of a book early next year.
Mary Stockdale continued her research on inventory methods appropriate for the assessment of rattan populations, and the use of those techniques in demographic studies of rattan populations in both pristine and logged forests. She successfully defended her doctoral thesis. Since completing that, she has continued work in Indonesia, looking at inventory methods in Indonesia as one component of an Overseas Development Institute project.
David Burslem's project in Kolombangara, financed by the ODA Forestry Research Programme and sub-contracted to Dr T.C. Whitmore (Cambridge), involves the analysis and interpretation of 30 years' data from permanent sample plots in natural forest in the Solomon Islands. The results are providing information on ecological diversity among co-existing tropical trees and differential responses to a cyclone. On the basis of the findings a simulation model of forest and yield has been written for application to natural forest management in the Solomon Islands.
Temperate silvicultural research at Oxford focuses on broadleaved rather than coniferous forestry. This is not merely a logical consequence of the Institute's location in lowland southern Britain, but also a response to Government initiatives in recent years. One aspect of these initiatives is an increased interest in the ecology, silviculture, genetics and management of these woodlands, many of which have tended to suffer from neglect due to their relatively poor economic performance in comparison with conifers.
Projects which were in progress during 1994 included:
Research is examining the variation and heritability of both anatomical and chemical properties of oak wood. This work was started by Dr Bertrand Charrier, who left to become Directeur Technique at L'Ecole Supérieure du Bois, Nantes, in September 1993, and was taken over by Jonathan Mosedale. The studies form part of a wider EU-funded research project carried out throughout Europe on the production of quality wood from broadleaves.
Forest condition in the United Kingdom and the European Union
This investigation, conducted by Richard Mather, is in partial compliance with European Union legislation, which requires Member States to monitor the condition (health) of Community forests, and is jointly funded by the Commission and the Forestry Authority. The development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) for the analysis of forest condition was completed for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L). Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein, Q. robur L. and hybrids) in the United Kingdom. Statistical analyses indicated that although most explicable variation in changes in forest condition between 1989 and 1992 could be attributed to the effects of water stress, small components of residual variation were highly correlated with ozone exposure (beech and Scots pine) and sulphur deposition (Norway spruce). On the basis of the results of this work, the European Union has requested a similar GIS-based analysis of forest condition in all Member States. The GIS platform required for this work is being developed on a SUN workstation.
Other studies have included an analysis of the relationship between crown-assessment records and growth performance at oak sites in the United Kingdom, and an evaluation of survey-site representation of pollution and environmental gradients in the United Kingdom.
Isla Grundy (probationary research student, supervisors Drs N.D. Brown and P.S. Savill). Regeneration and management of miombo woodland in Zimbabwe.
Miombo woodland is economically important to large numbers of small-scale farmers in central and southern Africa, and yet very little is known of the woodland, nor of its suitability to intensive management. The research has a number of interdependent objectives, directed at improving the knowledge of this vegetation type, and defining the basis for sustainable management of miombo woodland in Zimbabwe. The work includes: the development of regression models to estimate standing woody biomass from diameter and stem length measurements; coppice management using fenced trials to improve coppice regrowth after cutting; an investigation of the effect of site differences on tree growth; the ageing of trees using tree rings (in the absence of long-term research plots); and use and management of the woodland by local people. Finally, in the light of current social, environmental and economic constraints, and the biological information determined above, a considered understanding of best-use practices for the management of communally owned or managed miombo woodland in Zimbabwe will be developed.
Arne Heineman (Research Officer and DPhil student, supervisors Drs P.H.T. Beckett, J. Burley and P.S. Savill). Crop production under alley cropping systems with tropical leguminous trees: critical interactions between system components.
Tropical deforestation and land degradation in densely populated areas is caused mainly by small holders practising unsustainable forms of agriculture. Alley cropping (hedgerow intercropping) is a technique whereby foodcrops are grown in alleys between rows of leguminous trees, which are managed as hedges. It is seen as one of the means of growing food crops more sustainably in space and time compared with sole food cropping without other adequate inputs. The research project is being carried out in the highlands of western Kenya to determine what the critical factors are in the design of suitable alley cropping systems for densely populated areas in the upland humid tropics. The field research includes the evaluation of selected tree and shrub species for alley cropping with maize and beans. Short- and long-term effects of tree leaf mulch on crop performance and soil status are being investigated. Construction of nutrient budgets to verify long-term sustainability of alternative cropping practices is part of the research. Additional pot experiments under controlled conditions in Oxford showed that the time of mulch application, as well as the type and amount of mulch, all have significant influences on the development of young maize. Under tropical cropping conditions where light and water are not the main limiting factors, a positive relationship was established between the amount of mulch applied from a given species over a four year period and the cumulative maize grain yield from associated field plots. Where different trees are compared on the same site, the situation is more complicated. Therefore, comparative mulch quality and time of placement are also being investigated.
Stephen Jennings (probationary research student, supervisors Drs N.D. Brown and T.C. Whitmore, University of Cambridge). Comparative response of tree seedlings to canopy gaps in the Tapajos rain forests, Pará, Brazil.
Canopy gaps are considered crucial to the dynamics, maintenance of diversity of tropical rain forests. A key question within the theories concerning gap dynamics is whether different climax tree seedlings (the overwhelming majority of rain forest tree species) are preferentially adapted to a particular range of microclimatic conditions, thereby allowing a partitioning of the gap resource.
This research is part of the ODA-CPATU Rain Forest Silviculture Programme. It is, in part, a parallel study to on-going work on forest regeneration in artificial canopy gaps in Borneo. The Tapajos forests, however, differ in being highly seasonal, with a 3-4 month dry season.
This project is divided into four studies:
Jonathan Moss (probationary research student, supervisors Drs N.D. Brown and P.S. Savill). The regeneration dynamics of arid Acacia tortilis woodland formations in northern Kenya.
Natural woodland formations in the drylands of eastern Africa play a vital role in the patterns of land use and livelihoods of significant populations of pastoralist and semi-pastoralist peoples. As a result of extensive degradation of the woodland resource over recent decades, the need for innovative natural woodland management in such areas, within the framework of enhanced systems of range management and land use strategies, is clear. To date there has only been limited success in the promotion of indigenous woodland regeneration and establishment. Future interventions for rehabilitation in such areas will only be afforded greater opportunity for success through a full understanding of the regeneration processes of such woodlands. Once parameters of importance in the natural regeneration of woodland formations are established, and reasons for current processes of vegetation change are understood, clear management guidelines for rehabilitation can be developed.
On this basis an investigation into the regeneration ecology of Acacia tortilis and the vegetation dynamics of the natural woodland formations of a regionally representative study area in Marsabit District, northern Kenya, has been initiated. Research objectives include the explanation of changes in woody vegetation over the past 30 years and contribution to the development of methods for the promotion of indigenous woodland regeneration and establishment.
Achievements in 1994 include compilation and initial analysis of 80 years of climate data, acquisition of 30 years of aerial photography covering the study area, botanical identification of all plant species in the study area, fuelwood, building materials, and economic surveys for the major settlement of the study area, survival trials as an initial investigation into moisture requirements for germinants, germination trials, livestock feeding trials, a survey of seed loss to Bruchid beetles, a pilot vegetation survey and the training of a survey team, and a soil survey covering the study area.
Douglas Sheil (Research Officer and DPhil student, supervisors Drs P.S.Savill and Q.C.M.Cronk). The nature of long term changes in unlogged and logged tropical moist forest.
Undertaken with ODA research grant R4737, this project aims to collect and analyze data from Budongo Forest, Uganda, which contains the world's oldest tropical forest permanent sample plots. This study has implications for conservation and management of species-rich forests and provides a rare opportunity to examine long term processes in tree ecology relating to individuals, species and communities.
Data from earlier measurements have been located and in Budongo the plots were found, and each stem identified, verified, measured and mapped (~9 ha total including ~5,000 stems >1 cm dbh). An additional seven one hectare permanent plots were established in Rabongo Forest (Murchison Falls National Park) in order to gain information on animal and fire impact on vegetation. The massive data set has now been computerized and assessed for artefacts. Currently these data are being analysed by a variety of techniques as part of which various critical evaluations of standard analytical methodologies have been carried out.
Gil Viera (probationary research student, supervisor Dr N.D. Brown). Structural and ecophysiological aspects of gap dynamics in natural and managed Amazonian moist forest.
The lack of knowledge for Amazonian timber species is a barrier in developing adequate silvicultural systems to manage this forest. It is still uncertain whether gap phase regeneration is influenced by gap size after logging. This study aims to understand the ecology of some valuable timber species, analysing the preferential niche for seedling establishment and its relation to gap size and the regeneration patterns after logging. To achieve this, a series of trials were set up. An experiment concerned with the ecology of buried seeds was carried out in attempt to understand the role of gap and non gap areas in seed germination and their longevity in the soil seed-bank. Seedling ecology was studied in controlled environments with three levels of PAR and nitrogen supplement and, concomitantly, in a forest gap trial with different percentages of canopy opening. This experiment aimed to understand the physiological, morphological and allometric adjustment related to acclimatization in contrasting environments. The vegetation dynamics were studied four, five and six years after logging in 13 gaps whose sizes varied from 81 m2 to 1090 m2. Phytosociological parameters and the dynamics of these populations were analysed to understand the relationship between gap size, direct site factor and edaphic conditions (C:N ratios, total phosphorus). The results suggested that species from different ecological groups required different niches for germination (gap centre, edge and closed canopy) and also that there was variation of seed longevity in the soil seed-bank according to successional stage. Plant size, growth, morphology, leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll content were influenced by levels of PAR and nitrogen supplement in the controlled environment. The growth of seedlings in the forest gap trial was found to be enhanced in gap environments for all species, but plant morphology and biomass allocation were different from those plants grown in the nursery. In gaps created by logging operations the results did not show a clear trend of gap size specialization. Using canonical correspondence analysis, however, it was observed that environment variables such as percentage canopy cover, position of the plots and soil nitrogen content influenced species distribution.
Kishokumar Jeyaraj (probationary research student, supervisors Drs N D Brown and P S Savill). The ecology of dipterocarp regeneration .
Dhammika Perera (probationary research student, supervisors Drs N D Brown and P S Savill). Identifying a silvicultural system for the natural regeneration of scrublands in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.
Authors' abstracts of theses completed during the year
Araujo F.D. The ecology, ethnobotany and management of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. around Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. (DPhil - supervisors Prof G.T. Prance and Dr P.S. Savill).
Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) is a valuable tree, exploited for its fruits by people of the Brazilian savannas. The thesis describes aspects of its ecology and management. Analyses of the tree species composition and phytosociology showed that C. brasiliense and Eriotheca pubescens are the most important of 75 tree species found in the area studied. Caryocar is clumped and spatial pattern analysis suggests two scales of clumping, the larger of which may be over 150 m in diameter.
On undisturbed sites C. brasiliense has a mean stem diameter of 11-14 cm at breast height, a mean total height of 4-5 m, and a mean crown diameter of 4-5 m. Density is between 45-70 individuals per hectare, and basal areas average 1.4 m2 ha-1. Stem diameters correlate well with crown diameters. There is a shortage of small size classes in undisturbed vegetation. Growth and fruit production is better in agroforestry systems than on undisturbed sites.
C. brasiliense flowers and fruits annually. Pollination occurs from August to September and ripe fruits fall from October to February, when large trees may yield fruits for 50 days. The period of fruit development varies between seasons, though not between sites. An average tree yields around 50 ripe fruits, although large trees may produce over 1000. One-seeded fruits are most common, although seed numbers vary from 1-4, determining fruit shape.
Seeds can be strongly dormant, and are difficult to germinate. Among several treatments compared in an experiment established to break dormancy, untreated soil from regeneration-rich sites was the only one to enhance germination. The careful selection of predator-free stones and sowing seeds with the embryo facing upwards also improves germination.
An ethnobotanical survey revealed considerable local knowledge of the ecology of Caryocar, which are discussed together with several aspects of the relationships between local people and Caryocar (e.g. uses, preferences, beliefs, folklore).
Mosedale, J.R. Variation of oak wood properties influencing the maturation of whisky. (DPhil - supervisor Dr P.S. Savill). Financed by United Distillers.
Oak casks are used for the maturation of a wide variety of alcoholic beverages including Scotch whisky. The process of maturation has a profound but variable effect on the colour and flavour of the whisky, with cask wood playing an important role, particularly through the release of extractives to the distillate. This thesis examines variation in European oak wood (Quercus petraeaMatt. Liebl. and Q. robur L.) of ellagitannins, oak lactones and other extractives, and physical wood properties. Investigations particularly sought to establish whether the properties and their effects on flavour can be predicted from either the species, the various forest origins, or identifiable wood or tree characters.
The treatment of wood after felling, through seasoning and particularly the toasting or charring of casks, has a major effect on the levels of many extractives. Heating reduces the concentrations of ellagitannins and increasing levels of lignin-derived extractives. However, the effects are not such as to render variation in untreated wood inconsequential. Within trees, the concentration of soluble ellagitannins declines and the composition changes with heartwood age. When heartwood of a similar age is compared their concentrations vary by up to ten times between different trees, making up to 14% of the heartwood dry weight. Concentrations of oak lactones appear to increase with heartwood age and are also very variable between trees.
Wood samples were taken from two different forests, corresponding to opposing types of French oak used for cooperage. Over 70% of the total variation of soluble tannins in the wood occurred between the forests. After heating the wood, the concentrations of other extractives and the flavour and colour imparted to solutions, also varied significantly between the two forests and between trees within each site. Differences in the heartwood age of samples, caused by differences in the rates of growth, were not adequate to explain the differences between the two sites.
Studies on clonal, progeny and provenance material concluded that the concentration of ellagitannins, oak lactones and many physical properties of heartwood are under strong genetic control. However, a large proportion of this variation is attributable to variation between the two species Q. robur and Q. petraea. Q. robur is characterised by high concentrations of tannins and, after heating, of lignin-derived products, but low or negligible levels of oak lactones. Q. petraea has opposing extractive properties and after heating, imparts a more pleasant and complex flavour. Although there is large variation between trees within each species, this difference between the species is proposed as the main factor explaining the different flavour and extractive properties found in European oak wood from different origins.
Stockdale, M.C. Inventory methods and ecological studies relevant to the management of wild populations of rattans. (DPhil - supervisors Drs J. Dransfield, N.D. Brown and P.S. Savill)
Rattans are climbing palms of the family Palmae, subfamily Calamoideae, with greatest concentration in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and New Guinea. Rattans are of major economic importance to local and national economies; despite recent investment in plantations, almost all are harvested from natural forests. Shortages of supply have been reported in a number of countries, raising awareness of the need for their more sustainable management. This study, conducted in Borneo, investigates important questions about the inventory and ecology of wild populations of rattans.
The objectives of the research were firstly, to develop methods for the inventory and ecological study of rattans, by: (a) determining the optimum plot shape and size for inventory sampling; (b) testing methods for estimating stem length, and, © developing a method for estimating stem age, growth and phenological history, and; secondly, to obtain ecological information relevant to improving the management of wild populations of rattans, such as: (d) the population structure of the major commercial species, Calamus caesius Bl., in a community managed forest, and; (e) the impact of selective logging on rattan diversity and abundance.
Inventory sampling was most cost-efficient using rectangular plots oriented parallel to the general direction of the slope. Optimum plot size was positively correlated with, and could be determined from, the total area to be inventoried, the desired level of sampling error, and the ratio of the long and short axes of the rectangular plot. Stem length, a parameter of importance for both utilization and ecological research, was most accurately estimated using a
ruler as a hypsometer. Internode and inflorescence scar analysis of rattan stems, analogous to growth ring analysis of trees, appeared to have potential for the estimation of the age and annual growth rate of a stem; unlike growth ring analysis, it could also be used to investigate aspects of the stem's phenological history.
Some of the methodologies developed above were applied in ecological studies of rattans. As the supply of rattans is threatened both by over-harvesting and the loss of forest habitat due to logging and agricultural conversion, ecological studies of rattans in community managed forest and in a logging concession were conducted to investigate the effects of rattan harvesting and timber extraction on rattan populations. The population of C. caesius in a community managed forest appeared to be adequately self-replacing, despite evidence of harvesting occurring in advance of sexual maturity and a lower rate of shoot production than that reported for plantation rattans. In contrast, the overall abundance of rattan populations decreased following logging, although species richness and evenness were not significantly altered a year after logging operations. The effects of logging on rattan abundance and species composition appeared to be threefold: (a) the direct effect of felling and extracting timber; (b) the indirect effect of increased harvesting of the commercial rattan C. caesius , and; © differing responses of rattan age classes and species to modification of the environment subsequent to logging operations. In both community managed forests and logging concessions, light levels, topography and associated environmental factors appeared to influence the growth and survival of rattans.
Some of the results reported here have direct application in rattan inventory and management; others identify the need for further work to clarify these initial findings. The priorities of such work are discussed. One of the outcomes of the study has been the reminder of how little is known about the ecology and appropriate management of these very important plants.
"Long-term production and succession in unlogged and logged tropical moist forest." ODA-funded project R4737 from 25.2.92 to 31.3.95. Mr R.D. Sheil.
"Crop production under alley cropping systems with tropical leguminous trees in E. Africa." ODA-funded project R5040 from 1.10.92 to 30.9.95. Mr A.M. Heineman.
"Production of quality wood from broad leaf trees." EC-funded project A1R1-CT92-0608 from 1.11.92 to 30.10.95. Dr B. Charrier & Dr P.S. Savill.
"Regeneration studies in Brunei." Shell consultancy from 1.7.92 to 30.6.94. Dr N.D. Brown.
"Ecology of tropical rainforest regeneration for sustainable management." ODA-funded project R5464 from 1.10.92 to 30.9.95. Dr N.D. Brown.
"The regeneration, ecology and rehabilitation of native woodland formations in drylands of Eastern Africa. ODA-funded studentship R5987 from 1.4.94 to 30.9.95. Mr J. Moss.
Academic staff: Dr J. Burley, Dr P.J. Kanowski
Research staff: Dr R.D. Barnes, Mrs J.S. Birks, Dr D.H. Boshier, Dr J.R. Chamberlain, Mr A.J. Dunsdon, Mr C.W. Fagg, Mr A. Farjon, Mr D.L. Filer, Dr S.A. Harris, Dr W. Hawthorne,
Mr C.E. Hughes, Mr A. Lamb, Mr A.J. Pottinger, Dr A.J. Simons, Mrs J.P. Smith,
Ms J.L. Stewart, Miss O.J. Webley
Technical staff: Mr M. Billingham, Mrs C. Surman
Research students: Miss J.A. Hawkins, Mr D. Pushpakumara, Miss S. Rendell, Mr M. Sandiford
Visiting scientists: Mr J. Perez de la Rosa (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Dr M. Kanashiro (CPATU, Brazil)
Research by members of the Forest Genetics Group spanned five programme areas: exploration and systematics, reproductive biology and population genetics, distribution and evaluation, quantitative genetics and breeding strategy, and information systems. Work continues to depend on close collaboration with a wide range of projects and organizations in many countries and, in support of the research programme, includes training, consultancy and dissemination of results and information.
Much of the research conducted in 1994 continued to focus on the non-industrial tropical legume genera Acacia, Calliandra, Gliricidia, Faidherbia and Leucaena, providing a clearer understanding of patterns of both species and intraspecific diversity for these genera. As well as providing a sound base for tree improvement and utilization of forest genetic resources, the work of the Group also included research directed towards wider issues of conservation and sustainable development. New research to investigate the effects of forest fragmentation on population genetic diversity and dynamics and to synthesize genetic and ecological perspectives on forest stand structure and dynamics was started during 1994. The continuing prominence of biodiversity on scientific and political agendas demonstrates the wider application and central importance of the work of the group to diversity assessment, conservation and sustainable development. Many members of the Group continued to be active in international, scientific and political fora directed towards realizing these objectives. One manifestation of this in 1994 was OFI involvement with CIFOR, FAO and IPGRI in seeking more effective in situ conservation of forest genetic resources.
The Group's capabilities in molecular systematics and population genetics research were strengthened during the year through a new CIFOR-ODA initiative. This project support allowed us to appoint Martin Billingham as a research technician in July, and provides funds for the training of three developing country scientists in each of the three project years. The first of these, Jorge Perez de la Rosa, spent three months working with Stephen Harris and Aljos Farjon from September. The Group also welcomed Joanne Chamberlain at the start of the year, to further develop research on the reproductive biology and population genetics of Calliandra , and Mark Sandiford and Sarah Rendell in October as doctoral students. Tony Simons left the Group at the end of the year to take up the position of Programme Coordinator at ICRAF, where we know his talents will be used to good effect.
Activities in each programme area during 1994 are summarized below, and further detailed information is available in the publications cited at the end of this report.
In the area of systematics and collection the Group is concerned with the discovery, description, inventory and collection of both species diversity and genetic diversity within species that will provide material for use in tree planting and the foundations for genetic conservation. Current work is concentrating on the genetic resources of non-industrial legume trees in both Central America and Mexico and in Africa on the vitally important dry and arid zone genera Acacia and Faidherbia. In addition, taxonomic research on the pines of Mexico and Central America is nearing completion.
Fieldwork for the study of diversity in Faidherbia albidawas completed during the year with detailed collections made by Chris Fagg in Ethiopia, northern Kenya and Mozambique and by Richard Barnes in Zimbabwe. Preliminary isozyme studies were carried out on 32 populations from throughout the natural range of F. albida . Populations from Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe were analyzed for eight enzyme systems at 11 loci. This study shows a clear distinction between those populations from the south and east of the distribution and those from Ethiopia and west of the distribution. Those populations from Ethiopia show some of the highest genetic diversities, highlighting this area as a key centre of diversity of the species. This work has been in collaboration with CIRAD Forêt, France, and will be completed in 1995. In March Chris Fagg and Stephen Harris participated in a workshop in Senegal evaluating the genetic resources of F. albida, both from isozyme and trial results.
In Zimbabwe, Richard Barnes collected seed and herbarium material from a population of Acacia tortilis ssp. spirocarpa/A. tortilis ssp. heteracantha growing sympatrically in the Odzi/Sabi Valley. Analysis of leaf peroxidases in 14 provenances of A. tortilis was carried out in collaboration with Dr Peter Brain in South Africa. Further collections were made of A. erioloba from Namibia in collaboration with the National Botanical Research Institute.
Gum arabic and seed of the A. senegal var. senegalwas collected by Chris Fagg from the rift valley of Ethiopia and from the two growth forms of A. circummarginata (A. senegal var. leiorhachis) in northern Kenya. Gum was brought back to OFI for chemosystematic analysis to help distinguish between taxa of the A. senegal complex. Herbarium studies continued with visits to Ethiopia (ADDIS and ILCA), Mozambique (LMA), and Kenya (EA) where a further 5000 specimens were added into the Acacia botanical database.
With the completion of the first phase of exploration and collection of Calliandra calothrysus and its close relatives, collections this year built upon previous years' work. Family-based and bulk seed collections of C. calothyrsus were made in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica by Joanne Chamberlain. These collections correspond to provenances with good early growth performance in field trials.
With the assembly of new and comprehensive Leucaena seed collections and their associated documentation now complete, research during the last two years has concentrated on the systematics of the genus. Considerable confusion surrounds the taxonomy of the genus Leucaena with a poor understanding of phylogeny, the status and relationships of species, the origin of the known tetraploid species and the identity of putative interspecific hybrids. Without a sound foundation in systematics and no recent or complete taxonomic revision, the utilization, genetic improvement and conservation of Leucaena genetic resources is greatly hampered.
In the past, over-dependence on a small number of unreliable morphological characters such as leaflet size, number of pinnae and leaflets, pod size and pubescence has led to a superficial understanding of the structure of the genus and difficulties and confusion over the delimitation of species. While some species are uniform, distinct and have restricted distributions, others are very variable and widespread, forming morphological complexes often with a proliferation of named species.
Research during 1994 by Colin Hughes concentrated on the assembly of a comprehensive morphological data set for Leucaena. Significant morphological variation has been discovered and a suite of taxonomically useful characters identified and scored across species. These include bark surface pattern and internal structure, stipules, stem section, leaf characters, phyllotaxy, extrafloral nectary, inflorescence system, flower colour and morphology, pollen, fruits, seeds, seedling morphology and nyctinastic leaf movements. This new data set will be used to analyze species relationships and in the assembly of species descriptions and identification keys. Work to assemble a taxonomic account of Leucaenais now nearing completion.
Limited field work was undertaken during the year with the assistance of collaborators in Indonesia and Jamaica, areas where Leucaena species have been introduced and where spontaneous interspecific hybrids have occurred. Seed, botanical material and dried leaf material for DNA extraction were collected.
During exploration and collection expeditions over the last four years a large collection of bruchid seed predators has been assembled. These have now been identified and the bruchid-host record for Leucaena compiled and analyzed, with the preparation of a short paper for publication.
Following earlier molecular analysis of Leucaena using cpDNA and isozymes, progress has been made during the year in the identification of RAPD markers for Leucaena that are suitable for taxon identification and these markers have been used in the study of a hybrid between L. leucocephala ssp. glabrata and L. esculenta ssp. esculenta. Detailed analyses of RAPD and isozyme markers are also being used to describe variation within the L. diversifolia alliance.
Research on the systematics of the arid zone woody legume genera Parkinsonia and Cercidium, the ODA-funded doctoral project of Julie Hawkins, continued during 1994. There is long-standing confusion surrounding the generic delimitation of Parkinsonia and Cercidium. This confusion may be resolved through detailed study using molecular and morphological characters. Preliminary analysis using morphological characters has been completed; currently work is in progress on the acquisition of molecular data to be used in further analysis. The investigation of putative hybrids between P. aculeata and C. praecox has involved the morphometric assessment of intermediacy as well as an investigation of the distribution of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Through study of species relationships and the documentation of hybridization events a clearer picture of the systematics of this important group is emerging.
Aljos Farjon continued work on the pines of Mexico and Central America, for Flora Neotropica. This involved preparation of further species descriptions, revision or addition of plates, and visits to a number of major herbaria to review many of the collections of Latin American (especially Mexican) species of Pinus. Visits were made to several European herbaria, the New York Botanical Garden (NY), Smithsonian Institution (US) and UNAM, Mexico City (MEXU) herbaria where a large quantity of material was reviewed, with emphasis on types and original material. A field trip to Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico, was undertaken, providing a valuable opportunity to study as many taxa as possible in the field and to collect some rare pines which were under-represented in Oxford. A verified specimen database using the BRAHMS software was edited for mapping purposes with assistance from Christine Surman. All species have now been studied and described and the extensive literature reviewed, revealing the existence of a total of 47 species and 10 varieties or subspecies. With more than 400 published names, resolution of synonymy has been a major task, but this is now complete, while 95% of these names have been typified. An elaborate system, set up in BRAHMS, enables the monographer to compile full synonymy with references automatically from the data. Assembly of the taxonomic account for the monograph was begun in November; by the end of the year 20 species had been completed and most plates have been revised and/or drawn by Mrs Rosemary Wise. Further chapters on wood anatomy and monoterpene chemistry were drafted by Ian Gourlay and Jacqueline Birks respectively. Finally, two separate papers on specific topics pertaining to the monograph, one in co-authorship, have been submitted to botanical journals. It is anticipated that the manuscript for the Flora Neotropica monograph will be completed by mid-1995. As part of the CIFOR-ODA training programme, Jorge Perez de la Rosa (University of Guadalajara, Mexico) was trained in chloroplast DNA methods suitable for the study of Mexican pines, and carried out a preliminary analysis of a limited set of pine species.
Reproductive biology and population genetics
Effective genetic conservation and management of tropical forests, and breeding programmes of tropical trees, require detailed knowledge of the reproductive biology and population structure of the species concerned. Recent work has indicated that present strategies used in sampling genetic resources, adapted from recommendations for temperate trees, are inappropriate to many tropical tree species. Work is needed on a greater variety of tropical species to develop new guidelines.
David Boshier continued a study on genetic diversity and population structure of trees in fragmented dry zone forests of Central America. These forests are among the world's most threatened ecosystems, consisting of a mosaic of habitats, which owing to human influence have become highly fragmented and localized. The same forests are the source of many tree genera which are used, or show potential for use. In such areas conservation must be pro-active through ecological restoration, and can take two different forms, depending on the degree of fragmentation and prevailing socioeconomic conditions: a) wider ecological restoration; b) active in-situ conservation of certain economically important tree species through use by local communities. At present, there is insufficient data to prescribe genetic management in either situation. The research centres on three tree species, Bombacopsis quinata, Leucaena salvadorensis, Swietenia humillis under the prevailing conditions of habitat fragmentation.
During 1994 a first period of field work was carried out in Central America. Suitable fragments of forest, containing populations of the species were identified and trees mapped. Sites for B. quinata and S. humilis/S. macrophylla were chosen in Costa Rica and Honduras. B.quinata seed was collected from mapped trees and seed of good phenotypes and bulked provenance material left for the use of collaborators within the region. Observations of flowering and fruiting phenology were made at the time of mapping and seed collection. In several sites, the fires and tree felling evident during field work confirm the threat to this ecosystem, even when the forest is within a "protected" area. Protocols were developed for study of isozyme variation in B. quinata. Controlled cross and self pollination were carried out for L. salvadorensis and S. humilisand microscopic examination of this material started.
The investigation of flowering biology and breeding systems in Calliandra calothyrsus was begun by Joanne Chamberlain in a trial established in collaboration with CONSEFORH, and within a species trial established by ICTA with seed from the OFI collections. Further collaborative studies on flowering phenology were initiated with Maseno University/ICRAF, Kenya, with particular focus on the relationship of flowering phenology to seed production in Kenyan seed orchards. Isozyme electrophoresis was carried out on eight family-based provenances of C. calothyrsus, assessed for variability within and between populations. Nine useful enzyme systems have been identified. Early results suggest a marked differentiation of provenances in the south of the species' distribution (Costa Rica and Nicaragua) from the provenances to the north (Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras). These enzyme systems will also be used to screen material for markers suitable for the analysis of gene flow. Work to investigate potential hybrids within the Racemosae using RAPD markers was also initiated during the year.
Dharmapala Pushpakumara and Tony Simons continued their investigation of the reproductive biology of Artocarpus heterophyllus(jak) in Sri Lanka. Mark Sandiford began his research project on the reproductive biology of Bombacopsis quinata, related to production problems evident in Central American seed orchards, and Sarah Rendell began her investigation of the population structure and dynamics of dipterocarps. Dr Milton Kanashiro (CPATU, Belem, Brazil) visited the laboratory for six weeks to study randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variation in five populations of Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut).
Data are increasingly becoming available from the recently developed techniques of gene cloning, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, and restriction enzyme methods. These data which are used for the measurement and testing of the extent of protein and DNA polymorphism between and within populations, have already demonstrated genetic variation which was undetected by protein electrophoresis. At present the techniques are in advance of the methods of analysis and interpretation of these data. There are many unresolved problems related to the mathematical and statistical methods needed to quantify the changes in DNA sequence data. Jacqueline Birks is currently reviewing the mathematical and statistical methods presently in use for the analysis and interpretation of the data, in order to take full advantage of the molecular methods.
The distribution and evaluation programme illustrates the collaborative approach to research which is fundamental to the Forest Genetics Group's work, and to which it owes much of its success. Seed collected by Institute staff or collaborators is despatched to the UK and maintained at the Forestry Commission's seed storage facilities at Alice Holt, Surrey. Seed surplus to project requirements is distributed in small quantities, free of charge, to collaborators seeking to evaluate genetic variation and adaptation.
Approximately half of the seed despatched by the Institute is in response to requests for the establishment of trials to be included in one of the OFI-coordinated evaluation networks. These networks vary in size, from around 20 to over 100 researchers throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, and comprise experiments employing standardized designs testing a variety of seed sources. The objectives of evaluation vary for different networks; current objectives include the evaluation of timber production, wood density, biomass productivity and leaf production. The remainder of the seed despatched is destined for a wide range of individual experiments including investigation of the productivity of various seed sources at particular sites, seed orchard establishment and a range of laboratory-based studies. In addition, the careful documentation and formal sampling procedures used in compiling the seed collections have given certain trials the potential to answer specific questions relating to breeding systems and population genetics, as an increasing amount of material is made available to scientists specializing in biochemical and molecular analyses. In 1994, 141 kg of seed of 58 taxa was received by the seed store, which brought the total weight of seed stored to 1,927 kg; 74 seed orders comprising 126 taxa were despatched to 26 countries.
Alan Pottinger has been investigating ways in which the organization and management of trial evaluation networks can be improved. Major comments from a wide range of researchers consulted involve the experimental designs employed, the siting of experiments (on-farm or on research stations), the range of species with which OFI works, the publication and distribution of results, and the funding arrangements for trial collaborators. Discussions with research partners throughout the tropics have led to a broader approach to evaluation and utilization than has previously been employed with OFI networks.
A major new international network - the International Leucaena Research and Development Network (LEUCNET) - was launched in January 1994 at a workshop in Bogor, Indonesia, attended by Alan Pottinger and Colin Hughes; Alan, as the Group's Trials Manager, is playing a key role in its management. The distribution and subsequent evaluation of the OFI Leucaena seed collections will be an initial priority within LEUCNET, and distribution began in 1994. Wood samples from 39 species and provenances of Leucaena were collected from the CONSEFORH trial in Honduras for study of variation in density and wood anatomy.
Richard Barnes was involved in the establishment of the first field trials of African acacias with seed that has been collected over the past eight years of six of the most important species: Faidherbia (Acacia) albida, Acacia erioloba, A. karroo, A. nilotica, A. senegal and A. tortilis. The infrastructure of staff, equipment and facilities was set up in Zimbabwe with the Forestry Commission to establish, maintain and assess the trials. Seed of 73 provenances of six species was sown for screening trials and sufficient seedlings were raised for eight experiments. Eight sites were selected and three had been planted by the end of the year. Special studies on phenology, productivity and nutritional value were started in a natural stand of Acacia erioloba, on leaf peroxidase variation in A. tortilis and on uses and value of acacias and their products in the trial areas. A full set of provenances was also sent to Dr Kay Nixon of ICFR/Sappi (South Africa) for the establishment of trials on three sites in Natal.
The analysis of data from stem disc and core samples collected in a natural stand of Acacia karroo in Zimbabwe was completed by Ian Gourlay, Julie Smith and Richard Barnes. This is the first intensive study of growth and productivity in this important species, indigenous to southern Africa.
The Calliandra seed distribution programme, which started in 1993, is designed to evaluate the relative performance of different species and provenances of Calliandra. This continued at a similar level to the previous year. Alan Pottinger carried out the first assessment of these trials, assessing one of the early-planted trials in Sri Lanka.
Having identified superior-performing seedlots, whether species or provenances, the next challenge is to identify and meet the demand for such material. Tony Simons investigated the demand and supply of seed of Gliricidia, compiling a database of responses to a letter seeking information on the quantity and quality of the seed which was traded or demanded. Results showed large differences in quantity, quality and prices, which often bore no relation to each other. On-farm trials of the superior Retalhuleu provenance were started in Indonesia and Philippines to obtain farmers' opinions on its traits. Tony Simons also began a joint project with Elizabeth Cromwell of ODI to investigate prospects for the release and improvement of germplasm in countries with either no previous cultivation of the species, established cultivation as an exotic, or established cultivation within the native range.
Much of the current demand for seed of the species the Group are working with is satisfied by inferior material. Seed orchards, therefore, play an increasingly important role in the Group's activities, and 1994 saw a continuing involvement in their establishment. Further half-sib family seedlots of superior provenances of G. sepium were despatched to collaborators in Guatemala, Hawaii, India, Philippines, St Lucia and Trinidad. Joanne Chamberlain initiated plans for the establishment of seed orchards of Calliandra calothrysus in Honduras (in collaboration with CONSEFORH), Guatemala (in collaboration with ICTA) and Nicaragua (in collaboration with DANIDA). These seed orchards will go some way to meeting increased demand for seed of provenances identified as superior performers in the OFI trial series.
The risks associated with species introductions in tropical forestry are receiving increasing attention. Colin Hughes, who has long been concerned with this issue, presented a paper entitled "Risks of species introductions in tropical forestry" at a one-day symposium on tropical trees as invasive species held in Oxford under the auspices of the UK Tropical Forest Forum. This paper has now been edited for publication and provides guidelines for the regulation of new introductions, including the forthcoming distribution of Leucaena seed for trials.
Janet Stewart continued her investigation of the fodder quality of several of the leguminous genera for which OFI has assembled seed collections. While most previous evaluation of this germplasm has concentrated on growth and yield, product quality is an equally important criterion in fodder tree selection. For Gliricidia sepium, problems with acceptability of the leaves to livestock are reported in many parts of the tropics, but is not known whether this is due to genetic variation in Gliricidia, or to differences in site (soil and/or climate), in management practices, or in the animals being fed. The possibility of genetic variation in quality is being investigated by provenance-based feeding trials using sheep and goats. Fodder blocks containing 5-6 provenances of Gliricidia were established at five sites during 1992 and 1993, in collaboration with livestock research institutions in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Colombia, Costa Rica and Nigeria. Feeding trials using this material were carried out during 1994 at four of these sites; the fifth, at ILCA in Nigeria, will be conducted in early 1995. Janet collected leaf samples from the fodder blocks during visits to each site to monitor the progress of the feeding trials. These samples will be analyzed for coumarin, a secondary compound in Gliricidia which may influence palatability.
For Leucaena, studies of leaf chemical composition were completed for most of the known taxa, using leaf material from OFI seed collections growing in an ODA-funded trial in Honduras. The same samples will be used for in vitro digestibility studies, in collaboration with the University of Reading, in 1995. These laboratory studies were complemented by a feeding experiment carried out in Honduras by Janet Stewart, with the assistance of CONSEFORH staff and resources. Fresh leaves of 15 Leucaena taxa, from the same trial sampled previously for the laboratory analyses, were offered simultaneously to nine penned sheep, to determine their relative palatability. The results of all these studies will be used to identify the most promising taxa for more detailed future evaluation in longer-term feeding trials.
Jacqueline Birks continued the study of the reliability of genetic parameters estimated from progeny tests, and in particular the combined provenance and progeny test. This is an experiment in common use in tree improvement programmes because it attempts to test provenances and families in one, instead of two stages. These experiments have three objectives: the comparison of provenances; the estimation of genetic parameters; and the selection of candidates for the next generation. Optimal designs to meet these objectives for a range of breeding strategies have been derived.
Using data from a large progeny trial of Gliricidia sepium in Honduras, Andrew Dunsdon investigated the sensitivity of genetic parameters, in particular heritability, to changes in family numbers, number of replications and plot size. This involved repeated simulations using random sub-samples to represent the various changes in these trial parameters, and resulted in recommendations about the size and layout of future trials which will enable accurate and reliable genetic parameters to be obtained without the need for such large trials.
Tony Simons continued the molecular studies of Gliricidia sepium to investigate the effect on genetic variation of selection for breeding. Results indicated that even low intensities of selection in a seed orchard can result in substantial loss of genetic variation. This lends weight to the supposition that little tree improvement beyond provenance selection should be carried out for non-industrial species and that it is preferable to pass on the maximum diversity to the end user. In a related investigation, Andrew Dunsdon employed a repeated-simulations analysis on a RAPD analysis of 50 trees of four families from the same trial in order to investigate the effect on the accuracy and reliability of measurements of genetic diversity, in particular Shannon's Index, of reducing the number of trees analyzed.
Richard Barnes continued his affiliations with various tropical tree breeding programmes. His consultancy visits again included Zimbabwe, Malawi, Swaziland and South Africa. There were further developments in the design, management and practical application of breeding seedling orchards (BSO) in the multiple population breeding strategy including the concept of a composite BSO. This arose during an external review of the tree breeding programme in Zimbabwe by Mike Arnold and Dr Tim White during which this strategy was devised as a means of overcoming some of the constraints that had become apparent with the BSO in the multiple population breeding strategy. Also during the year, the crosses were completed between relatives in the Pinus patula breeding population in Zimbabwe to produce a set of full-sib families that constitute a mating design which will make it possible to estimate general combining separately from inbreeding effects. Leaf and seed material has been brought to the OFI molecular genetics laboratory to verify relationships through RAPD markers; and it is planned that Claire Williams of NCSU will work on using the new molecular marker technologies for conifers to detect deleterious alleles that cause inbreeding depression during her 1995 visit supported by a NATO collaborative research grant.
The research of the Forest Genetics Group has involved particularly close collaboration with organizations in Central America including the ODA-assisted Honduras CONSEFORH project and the CATIE Tree Improvement Project in Costa Rica, collaboration that continued actively during the year. In Honduras, Jacqueline Birks completed a four-week assignment to organise and conduct a data analysis course for local staff. This is being followed up with a three-month attachment to CONSEFORH to continue training and complete the analysis of data from a central core of CONSEFORH trials. In Costa Rica, the joint CATIE-OFI project "intensified transfer of forest genetic technology and information in Central America" continued during the year. The project, under the adaptive research component of the ODA Forest Research Programme, is implemented by CATIE's Tree Improvement Project. Much reforestation in Central America occurs on small and medium scale farmers' land with a variety of tree species (both indigenous and exotic). The project's objectives are to; increase the speed and efficiency in the generation and transfer of forest genetic information and technology to tree planters in Central America; increase the use of research results generated by the project through the establishment of demonstration plots, pilot plantations and seed production areas on farmers' land. As one component of the cooperative work, OFI MSc graduates Mr Angus Brodie and Ms Leslie Chandler worked with the project to develop an outreach and associated extension strategy and a preliminary cost-benefit analysis for two species (one indigenous and one exotic) undergoing improvement in the project.
No new trials were established in 1994 by the OFI-Woodland Improvement broadleaved tree breeding project. Collaborators met at Little Whittenham in October to review progress and plan the next phase of the work.
The fifth major activity in the strategy of the Forest Genetics Group has continued to be the development of the forestry and biodiversity information systems BRAHMS, FROGGIE and SISTEM+; these are described in full in the Research Support section of this report.
"Intensive study of Leucaena genetic resources in Mexico and Central America." ODA-funded project R4524 from 1.1.90 to 31.3.95. Mr C.E. Hughes.
"Acacia karroo: evaluation and acquisition of genetic resources." ODA-funded project R4526 from 1.1.90 to 28.2.94. Dr R.D. Barnes.
"African Acacias: study and acquisition of genetic resources - phase two extension." ODA-funded project R4583 from 1.5.93 to 30.4.95. Dr R.D. Barnes & Mr C.W. Fagg.
"The reliability of genetic parameters estimated from forest tree progeny tests." ODA-funded project R4725 from 1.4.91 to 31.3.94. Mrs J.S. Birks & Dr R.D. Barnes.
"Fodder quality studies on Gliricidia sepium and other tropical multipurpose trees." ODA-funded project R4726 from 1.9.91 to 31.8.95. Ms J.L. Stewart, Mrs J.S. Birks & Mr A.J. Dunsdon.
"Genetic improvement of non-industrial trees with particular reference to Gliricidia sepium." ODA-funded project R4856 from 1.4.92 to 30.9.95. Dr A.J. Simons & Mr A.J. Dunsdon.
"Systematics of Parkinsonia and closely related species in the genus Cercidium." ODA-funded studentship R5063 from 1.10.92 to 31.3.96. Dr P.J. Kanowski, Mr C.E. Hughes & Miss J.A. Hawkins.
"Intensified transfer of forest genetic technology and information in C. America." (CATIE Tree Improvement project). ODA-funded project R5399 from 1.11.92 to 31.10.95. Dr P.S. Bacon & Dr D.H. Boshier.
"Seed production and experimental efficiency in a seedling seed orchard of Gliricidia sepium." ODA-funded project R5401 from 1.10.92 to 30.9.95. Mr A.J. Dunsdon.
"The taxonomy and ecology of Latin American pines and the conservation of genetic resources." ODA-funded project R5465 from 1.10.92 to 30.6.95. Dr B.T. Styles to June 1993, Mr A. Farjon from June 1993.
"Molecular analysis of genetic resources in tropical tree species." ODA-funded project R5467 from 1.10.93 to 31.3.96. Dr J. Burley & Dr S.A. Harris.
"Expansion and collaborative development of the forestry and biodiversity information systems, BRAHMS, FROGGIE and SISTEM+." ODA-funded project R5648 from 1.4.93 to 31.3.96. Mr D.L. Filer & Dr W. Hawthorne.
"Investigation of approaches to improve effectiveness of transfer of results from OFI tree improvement programmes to the field." ODA-funded project R5654 from 1.5.93 to 31.3.96. Mr A.J. Pottinger.
"Genetic improvement of Calliandra calothyrsus." ODA-funded project R5728 from 1.1.94 to 31.3.96. Dr J.R. Chamberlain.
"Genetic diversity and population structure of trees in fragmented dry zone forests of Central America - a pilot study." ODA-funded project R5729 from 1.5.93 to 31.3.96. Dr D.H. Boshier.
"Development and application of molecular assays for tree populations." CIFOR/ODA-funded project R6080 from 1.8.94 to 31.3.97. Dr P.J. Kanowski & Dr S.A. Harris.
"Testing genetic models for in-breeding depression in Pinus ". NATO-funded project from 1.9.94 to 31.3.96. Dr P.J. Kanowski.
"Hybridization in Leucaena." Royal Society-funded project from 1.4.94 to 31.3.95. Dr S.A. Harris.
"A species and provenance trial of Casuarina in the Tanzanian highlands." ODA-funded project R5532 from 1.3.93 to 29.2.96. Miss O.J. Webley.
Academic staff: Dr P.J. Kanowski, Dr P.S. Savill
Research staff: Mr J.E.M. Arnold, Mr I.M. Townson
Mike Arnold and Ian Townson continued the process of finalizing reports from earlier research projects during 1994. The work on socioeconomic aspects of tree growing by small farmers was completed with the publication of the book Tree Management in Farmer Strategies: Responses to Agricultural Intensification . The study resulting from the collaborative work with the University of Minnesota on valuation of forests was also completed. The Institute's participation in FAO's programme of research on managing forests as common property was concluded, with the hosting of the first meeting of the Collaborating Research Centers that make up the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research project, which is centred at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University.
The main focus during the year was on the dynamics of income generating activities based on non-timber forest products. This work included preparation of papers on the subject for a workshop convened by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and an expert consultation organized by FAO. The bulk of the research, however, was concentrated on the ODA-funded research project Sustainability of economic activities based on non-timber forest products. Work on this comprised three main elements.
The earlier review, analysis and annotation of case material in the literature (also supported by CIFOR) was brought together in an annotated bibliography, which was distributed for comment. This focused on five groups of products that previous work had indicated to be of particular importance for further analysis - fuelwood and charcoal, forest foods, basketry and handicrafts, extractive products, and furniture and carpentry. This bibliographical material was also made available to the NRI, for use in work they were doing for IFPRI on identifying differences between tree product markets and markets for agricultural crops.
The literature search had disclosed one large quantitative data base of particular interest, contained in the
results of recent surveys of small enterprises in six countries in southern and eastern Africa. An analysis of this data was carried out, jointly with the researchers at Michigan State University who undertook the surveys. This study focused on the dynamic aspects of the forest products enterprises for which information was recorded, and on identifying factors associated with the differential rates of growth observed for different types of enterprise activity.
The third activity was the organization and execution of a sample survey across parts of the high forest zone in Ghana. This survey, which was carried out with the assistance of the Collaborative Forestry Management Unit of the Planning Branch in the Ghana Forest Department, and with help from the Ghana Statistical Service, was designed to gather data on patterns of use of non-timber forest products associated with areas with different forest types and user situations. All the field work was completed during the year, and collation and analysis of the data has begun.
Peter Kanowski's work in forest policy focused on fostering the development and adoption of forest certification and product labelling, through his association with the Soil Association's Responsible Forestry Programme. He also revised earlier joint work on plantation forestry for presentation at the IUFRO meeting on eucalypt plantations in early 1995.
"Sustainability of economic activities based on non-timber forest products." ODA-funded project R5590 from 1.5.93 to 30.9.95. Mr J.E.M. Arnold.
"Review and prepare abstracts of the literature on the production and marketing of non-wood forest products." CIFOR contract OFI:ms/061293, from 6.12.93 to 30.4.94. Mr I.M. Townson & Mr J.E.M. Arnold.
"Forest, trees and people programme." FAO-funded project from 1.9.91 to 31.3.94. Mr J.E.M. Arnold.
Research staff: Dr.M.H.Ivory
In 1994 pathology and microbiology research at the Oxford Forestry Institute was limited to the study of the ectomycorrhizal associations of tropical trees in indigenous forests and plantations in Kenya conducted by Mike Ivory.
Activities in each programme area during 1994 are summarized below. Further detailed information on these and earlier studies in these areas is available in the publications cited at the end of this report. The work begun by Dr Caroline Mohammed on tropical Armillaria species will be continued by her in Tasmania in collaboration with Dr Glen Kile.
In response to an enquiry from the Forestry Department in the Seychelles a pathogenic wilt disease was diagnosed on a local littoral tree species (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) by Mike Ivory during a brief inspection visit. The causal organism was determined as Verticillium calophylli, which has been reported rarely on Calophyllum spp. in various tropical countries in the past.
Joint EU-funded research with partners in France, Kenya and Spain continued during the year, with Mike Ivory coordinating the project entitled "Ectomycorrhiza of indigenous and exotic trees in lowland Kenyan forests" from Oxford. Aspects of the study were carried out in Oxford Forestry Institute by Mike Ivory, at INRA (Champenoux) by Dr F. Martin, and at the University of Murcia in Spain by Dr M. Honrubia and his Kenyan student, Mr B.K.Mburu. Field studies were conducted in Kenya in collaboration with Mr L.M. Mwangi at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute and various lowland forest sites, including the conservation forest at Arabuko-Sokoke.
Numerous putative ectomycorrhizal fungi were observed during field tours in June, August and November as a result of a plentiful and extended rainy season in 1994.
Dried excicati of many of these are presently being determined at Oxford and Murcia. Samples collected into a glycerol: ethanol: water (30:30:40) mixture were successfully analysed at INRA using PCR-based procedures. These procedures are being used to complement
standard taxonomic techniques in the separation and determination of fungal species. Some of the fungi have also been obtained as pure cultures in vitro, or as mass collections of basidiospores. These are being characterized and subsequently used to synthesize ectomycorrhiza on the roots on native Kenyan leguminous trees and exotic pines and eucalypts at KEFRI, Oxford and Murcia using various systems. So far few have yielded positive results. Several of the spore collections have been used to successfully synthesize ectomycorrhiza under non-sterile conditions at KEFRI, Murcia and Oxford during 1994.
Soil samples collected from various forest sites in 1993 and 1994 were used to grow seedlings of the trees under study in glasshouses at KEFRI during the year. Ectomycorrhiza formed in these soils have been collected during the year and are presently being examined at Murcia. Several types have been determined on each tree species from most of the soils tested. Some ectomycorrhiza from native trees or synthesized on young seedlings have also been characterized at Murcia using light microscopy and SEM.
Mr Kamau Mburu continued his studies at the University of Murcia under the supervision of Dr Mario Honrubia. During 1994 he made three visits to Kenya to make field observations and examine experiments at KEFRI in addition to his work at Murcia. Latterly, he also began a course at the University of Granada which should lead to the award of an MSc in mid 1995.
In July all participants attended a liaison meeting in Spain in conjunction with the 4th European Mycorrhiza Symposium in Granada. One paper and two posters on the work of the project were presented at the latter.
"Ectomycorrhiza of indigenous and exotic trees in lowland Kenyan forests." EU-funded project ERB-TS3*CT92-0124 from 01.01.93 to 30.09.96. Dr. M.H.Ivory.
Academic staff: Dr J. Burley, Mr F.B. Thompson
Research staff: Mr R.A. Plumptre, Mrs J.P. Smith, Mr V.T. Burclaff, Miss C.E. Dorey
Technical staff: Mr P.G. Franklin, Mr I.D. Gourlay
Research students: Mr M.W. Croggon, Mr I.D. Gourlay
Consultants: Mr E.R. Palmer, Dr J.D. Brazier
Research into wood properties has been conducted at Oxford for over 50 years and the wood collection or xylarium now holds over 24,861 wood samples. They represent approximately 8,700 species, 2,350 genera and 200 families. Microscope slides have been prepared for much of the collection, and the anatomical characteristics of woods recorded on edge-punched cards. The collection of cards constitutes a key for the identification of hardwoods by their microscopic structure. It is used for taxonomic research and the identification of unknown specimens. Materials from the wood and slide collection were used in teaching undergraduate and MSc courses.
During 1994 samples were examined for identification and wood samples, slides or information were exchanged with:-
Wadham College, Oxford; Timbmet Ltd, Oxford; Institute for Holzbiologie, Hamburg; the Forensic Science Service, Hinchingbrooke Park, Huntington, Cambs.
Peter Franklin has completed the compilation of a computer wood identification database representing over 4,000 woods held in the Oxford xylarium. This database has adapted a system developed in Australia, based on the original Oxford/Princes Risborough card key. The computerization of the reference material held in the xylarium of wood samples and slides now has over 1,000 samples entered on the system.
Ian Gourlay has continued his anatomical research with African Acacias based on the age and growth rate techniques that he has developed. The writing up of work carried out on material collected last summer of 140 A. karroo trees from a single population in southern Zimbabwe is nearly complete. These trees were sampled for further age/population and volume studies. Julie Smith has been applying various statistical and plotting methods to these data to enable further elucidation.
Improvement of cork production and quality
1994 was the first full year of the EC-funded collaborative research programme with the Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Portugal, as coordinator and the Institute and the Botanica Agrícola, Universidade Politecnica de Madrid, Spain, as partners. The objective of this four year programme is to gain a better understanding of the effects of silvicultural management and cork harvesting on the growth of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and the quality of cork produced, and to use this knowledge to improve the management of oak stands for cork production. Elements of the work investigate carbon balance and assimilation, model growth and yield, and relate these to management decisions. The Institute's primary role is the use of its densitometric facilities and expertise to quantify wood and bark growth. Preliminary studies on disc and core samples revealed a confused pattern of wood anatomy subsequent to cork extraction; Ian Gourlay and Peter Franklin continued more detailed investigation on a wide range of samples in an attempt to resolve this problem.
This database was developed by the wood research section and is described under Research Support on page 28.
The purpose of Mike Croggon's doctoral research is to assess the properties and characteristics of some secondary tropical hardwood species from the Amazonian region, and he is appraising their commercial acceptability. Species are investigated under certain criteria: forest inventory data; forest accessibility; tree morphology; and suitability for assigning to UK end uses.
A database of some 1,000 woody species from Brazil has been compiled, together with data on vegetation and forest types, and commercial and common names. An associated database of timber properties is in preparation. Work during 1994 has concentrated on extending and improving the database.
A paper was written by Dr Andrew Morris of The Usutu Pulp Company summarizing the findings of the Usutu Pulp Project in conjunction with OFI staff; this was submitted to TAPPI.
ODA project R4619 final report was written and submitted to ODA FRP. It is proposed to write a journal paper on this project shortly. ODA project R4855 final report was written and submitted to ODA FRP dealing with the wood density variation found during the study. The pulping work is being done by The Biocomposites Centre of the University of Wales, Bangor.
Draft OFI Occasional Papers, currently being refereed, have been written for both of these projects. A draft journal paper has been written on the results of the second project and submitted to "Forestry".
Work continued on ODA FRP project R5466. Bob Plumptre and Frank Thompson completed the instrumentation of the test kiln.
The installation of lifting handles and of instruments to measure kiln performance was completed and the older kiln was completely reglazed. Some 180 measurement points were installed to monitor the necessary variables after the kilns had been loaded with timber supplied by the sawmill. Measurements covered radiation, temperature, humidity and air movement inside and outside the kilns, moisture and temperature gradients within the timber and flux of heat through the walls and floor of the kilns. A second new datalogger was bought to augment the number of recording channels by another 60. It is proposed to construct a model of kiln operation based on these measurements.
Dr A. OfosuAsiedu, Director of the Forest Research Institute, Ghana, spent three weeks in Oxford with Bob Plumptre preparing project proposals for networked forest products research in Africa. Dr OfosuAsiedu's visit was funded by ODA's NRED.
Mike Croggon has continued his DPhil study entitled The assessment of the properties and characteristics of some secondary hardwood species from the Amazonian region and the appraisal of their UK commercial acceptability. (See AMAZON database above.)
"Silvicultural management of cork-oak stands towards improved cork production and quality." EEC DGVI FII.3, Contract No. AIR 3 - CT92-0135 from 1.9.92 to 31.8.96. Dr P.J. Kanowski & Mr P.G.H. Franklin.
"Study and measurement of performance of the nomad solar kiln to improve design and methods of operation in a range of climatic conditions." ODA-funded project R5466 1.11.92 to 31.3.95. Mr R.A. Plumptre, Mr F.B. Thompson, Mr I. Gourlay & Mr I.D. Abbott.
"Extension and promotion of an information system for tropical timber properties to encourage appropriate use of more species." ITTO-funded project PD 27/92 Rev 1. (M.I.). Mr V.T. Burclaff, Ms C.E. Dorey, Mrs J.P. Smith and Dr J.D. Brazier.
Academic staff: Dr A. Grafen
Computer Manager: Dr C. Goodwin-Bailey
Research staff: Dr R. Mather, Mrs J.P. Smith, Mr H.L. Wright
Traditionally, much of the work of this group is to provide the formal teaching of statistics, mensuration, inventory and computing to undergraduate and postgraduate students and to give advice and assistance to members of the OFI. This work has also, in the past, extended to the ODA and to overseas forest departments or institutions. Over the years a large number of data sets have been acquired, mainly from overseas and a number of specialist computer programs written. These are maintained.
Both the Department of Plant Sciences and the Forestry Institute between them have committed themselves to maintaining the quality of the computing facilities they provide for their staff and students. Over the past year a great deal has been done to meet this pledge.
The physical wiring of the Department to provide ethernet outlets in all offices and student areas has continued and is now approaching completion. The Apple Macintosh classroom, which contains 20 MACs and is run in conjunction with the Zoology Department, principally for the benefit of undergraduates, has been relocated on the ground floor of the South Building. The existing equipment has been retained but the new room is larger and more easily accessible than the old one.
The greatest investment this year has been reserved for improvements to the classroom of networked IBM pcs. This facility is provided mainly for use by postgraduate students and particularly for those involved in the taught Forestry MSc course and summer courses. The new facilities include a file server and eight Pentium workstations. The classroom, in which they are located, has been re-decorated and equipped with new furniture. The transformation has met with general approval and is very welcome.
The capability of the Institute to work with Geographic Information Systems has recently been improved by Richard Mather. This involved installing the three most widely used standard systems, including PC-based SPANS, ARC/INFO on a Unix platform (Sun SPARCstation 5) and IDRISI running on a Pentium-based IBM network. The network is being used mainly for teaching and small-scale studies.
A training package based on IDRISI has been prepared for MSc students, and is to be further developed as an option for those attending the Departmental summer courses. The possibility of providing network access to ARC/INFO for research purposes is also being considered.
Present GIS-based research in the Department includes:
Because of the growing demand for GIS facilities within the Department, future requirements are likely to include more powerful image processing capability, digitizing equipment, peripherals (such as storage devices, scanners and colour printers and plotters), and archives of standard global and regional digital maps. The possibilities of access to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) Biodiversity Map Library and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Cover Map databases are also under consideration.
"Pilot project to investigate and model effects of air pollution on forest conditions. EC-funded project from 1.1.94 to 31.12.95. Dr R. Mather.
Head, Library and Information Service: Mr R.A. Mills
Librarian/Archivist, Special Collections: Mrs A.M. Townsend
Reader Services Librarian: Mrs S.M. Walker
Technical Services Librarian: Mrs J.B.D. Pinfold
Senior Library Assistants: (1) Miss K.H. Knox; (2) Mrs L. Leeson (CABI)
Library Assistants: (1) Mrs M.C. Evans; (2) Mrs S.M. Hastings
SCONUL Trainee: Miss A.J. Bunney
Library Consultant: Mr P.F. Jackson
Temporary Cataloguer Miss J.V. Stemp
As hoped, 1994 saw the first stages of implementation of the plans to restructure the Plant Sciences Library and Information Service to allow continuation of Oxford's historic connections with forestry information. Five new appointments were made, four of which were externally funded, completing the new staff structure which comprises 3.5 professional and 3.5 non-professional staff plus a trainee. In addition the University has funded a Library Consultant and a Temporary Cataloguer for one year to assist in the re-organization.
Much of the external funding has been provided by CIFOR (Centre for International Forestry Research) through a three-year contract with OFI for the provision of forestry information services to CIFOR and its collaborating organizations. This important new development has allowed planning of a revised, integrated service for the Department of Plant Sciences and taxonomic research in addition to the Forestry Information Service, which is able to continue to serve the international forestry community unshadowed by the 'planning blight' suffered as a result of financial uncertainty in recent years.
Plans were finalized for redevelopment of the whole of the library area and work on the building began in the Books Reading Room, which was carpeted and fitted with additional shelving in place of former study carrels. This provided adequate space for the open-shelf book collection to be contained within the reading room, allowing the adjacent stack to be converted to house taxonomic periodicals, integrated for the first time into one sequence in a location close to the two Herbaria. The book stock was edited by a team of academic staff during the summer vacation, and material selected for the open shelves is being added to the University on-line catalogue, OLIS. This work will be completed in 1995. The improvements have been well received, and the extensive remodelling planned for the rest of the library in 1995 is eagerly awaited.
The Agreement with CAB International, which expired on 31 August 1994, was extended for a further year while both organizations finalised their plans for future co-operation. Developments in computing, with the setting up of a World-Wide-Web server together with scanning and
CD-ROM writing equipment in the Department provide exciting new opportunities for information dissemination and document delivery, while the creation with CABI of a demonstration multimedia compendium of forestry information has attracted great interest. The Forestry Information Service will exploit these facilities to the full while continuing to supply traditional paper-based services to all who require them.
TREECD changed to quarterly updating from January 1994, and continues to be the most heavily used resource for locating forestry information. The Library is participating in the production of CABI's new current-awareness service CAB ACCESS by lending major forestry journals for indexing on a rapid turn-round basis. The project went into production in December for launch in January 1995. CAB ACCESS is a weekly service providing full bibliographic details of articles in 1000 refereed scientific journals covered in the CAB ABSTRACTS database. Supplied on diskette, CAB ACCESS comes with user-friendly software allowing search by journal name, year, author, keyword or subject category. Search strategies can be saved for repeated use and records printed or downloaded in a variety of formats. It is hoped to launch the product on the Internet during 1995.
1994 volumes of Forestry Abstracts, Forest Products Abstracts and Agroforestry Abstracts contained 9097, 2773 and 1807 records respectively, and a review article: Biochemical markers in tree improvement programmes by G. Ian Forrestwas published in FA. New forestry books published by CABI in 1994 included a second edition of M.S. Philip's highly successful Measuring trees and forests; Modelling forest growth and yield: applications to mixed tropical forests, by J. Vanclay and Long-term experiments in agricultural and ecological sciences edited by R.A. Leigh and A.E Johnson. OFI publications included Utilization of Pinus patula: an annotated bibliography by J.A. Wright (Occasional Paper 45); Structure and growth of small enterprises in the forest sector in southern and eastern Africa by J.E.M. Arnold and others (Occasional Paper 47), and PROSPECT for improved use of tropical timbers by J.P. Smith and others (Tropical Forestry Paper 28).
Academic staff: Dr A.W. Speedy (Associate Member of OFI)
Research staff: Mr N. Waltham
In 1994, an electronic information system was established which will serve to provide on-line resources in forestry and other related information in plant sciences. The project was funded initially by the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm (which has 2000 grantees worldwide) and the Oxford Forestry Institute. A larger additional grant was provided by the University of Oxford IT Strategy Committee to enable the upgrading of the system to its present level.
The equipment consists of a fast computer (IBM compatible 486DX66 PC with 24 mB RAM and 3.5 gigabyte hard disks). It is connected to the Internet via the University network and also to remote sites in developing countries by International Direct Dialling and UUCP (unix-to-unix-copy-protocol). The software is based on the IBM OS/2 operating system and provides servers for FTP, Gopher and World-Wide-Web.
Additional equipment includes optical scanning facilities and a Philips CDD521 CD-ROM writer to enable documentation to be delivered in this form to national centres in the future.
A project is in progress to collect and input documents and information. This will proceed over the next few years and funds are being sought to provide for additional staff. To date, there is a collection of in-house information about the Oxford Forestry Institute and the Department of Plant Sciences which is accessible via World-Wide-Web (http://ifs.plants.ox.ac.uk). This includes staff lists, reports and lists of publications but full-text articles will be added as they become available, starting with the OFI monographs. The server will gradually become a major information source available to users throughout the world. Further information will be gathered from the library resources of OFI in particular and other sources.
INSPIRE (INteractive SPecies Information REtrieval)
.INSPIRE is a computer-based storage and retrieval system for the characteristics, preferences and known potential of tree species. The program was developed to assist foresters in choosing species suitable for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. It comprises information on species under 21 headings which fall into the following categories:
Climate preferences, Soil preferences, Silviculture, Production potential, Protection planting, Timber density, Utilization.
.Species selection is made by specifying any combination of site conditions, silvicultural characteristics or utilization requirements. Up to 20 features can be applied successively before arriving at a final choice.
.The flexibility of the selection process is increased by the program's acceptance of ranges of values for all numerical parameters (e.g. rainfall, temperature) together with `AND/OR' choices of features where combinations or alternatives are available.
. The species selected are listed as either:
MAIN, being species that fully meet the specifications applied;
MARGINAL, being species that only partly cover the specifications or that demonstrate only a limited tolerance of suitability to certain features.
. The database currently maintained at the OFI covers 173 species judged suitable for tropical and sub-tropical sites, i.e. between approximately latitudes 30°N and 30°S. This includes species suitable for high-altitude sites, even though they may originate from temperate regions. Most of the species of major importance or potential as exotics are present.
. The complete package, consisting of the INSPIRE program plus data, is available for IBM-compatible microcomputers running under MS-DOS in 5.25" and 3.5" diskette formats.
. The OFI publication Tropical Forestry Paper No. 15 (now out of print) contains further information not included in the computer system and serves as a reference manual. It incorporates data on taxonomy, natural occurrence, nursery details, principal pests and diseases and gives references for each species.
PROSPECT (Programmed Retrieval Of Species by the Property and End-use C lassification of their Timbers)
In 1981 the Oxford Forestry Institute responded to a request from the Eleventh Commonwealth Forestry Conference to establish a computer database of the wood properties of species with potential for commercial use. During 1981-84 the computer program PROSPECT was developed on the Departmental minicomputer and information for around 1,300 species was collated on record sheets mainly from published sources, of which data for some 900 were entered into the system.
In recent years world interest in environmental issues, especially in the field of forestry, has emphasized the importance of well-informed forest management and the most efficient utilization of the timber. Concern about the over-exploitation of many commercial timber species and the possible value of lesser-known species has awakened realization of the need for information to enable an assessment of their potential to be undertaken.
The PROSPECT database has shown that it can provide information on a wide range of timber characteristics which is not always accessible in all countries. The aim is to make this data source widely available, and conversion of the PROSPECT system for use on a microcomputer has now been completed. The system has been designed to be easily revised and expanded, and provides a clear and simple interface with the user. The aim has been not only to create a system that can utilize the timber property data already collected, but also to revise and improve the quality of that information.
The new PROSPECT database has been set up on an IBM-compatible microcomputer using the FoxPro (dBase compatible) database package. The extensive list of wood characteristics in the original system has been reviewed and revised and the data sources have been reassessed in terms of their accuracy.
By surveying the known qualities of a wood, it is possible to assess whether that timber exhibits the necessary attributes to manufacture a given product. In PROSPECT this is done by specifying a list of properties for each end-use that must meet minimum standards, such that, for a given species, a simple evaluation of possible end-uses can be made and the results compared with any record of these uses in published literature. Similarly, for a given end-use, an evaluation of suitable species can be performed.
During 1993 the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) began to finance a two year project to develop PROSPECT and add more species to the system. Mr Victor Burclaff and Miss Cath Dorey are now working full time and Mrs Julie Smith and Dr John Brazier part time on the project. Work has included re-classification of some of the end uses, defining and implementing new end-use specifications and the addition of more species and information on existing ones.
A start was made in developing the program to compare properties of selected species with those of well-known benchmark species, so that possible substitutes for well-known woods can be identified and their suitability assessed. This will be incorporated into an updated version of the database in 1995.
An Institute Tropical Forestry Paper has recently been published which deals with the problems of using lesser known species whilst also being a guide to the use of PROSPECT. More details about the function and current status of PROSPECT are given below.
. PROSPECT is a computer-based storage and retrieval system for the properties and uses of tropical hardwood timbers. For each species, it records: current botanical name, synonyms or misapplied names, trade or vernacular names; global distribution by country or geographical region; timber properties, grouped into 12 categories (Tree features, Appearance/Physical, Movement/Shrinkage, Mechanical, Durability, Permeability, Drying, Sawing, Machining, Fastening, Surfacing, Veneer production); known end-uses.
. Any subset of the data can be displayed in detailed or summarized format. By identifying which species exhibit specific characteristics, the program can also evaluate the potential uses for any given timber, or suggest species suitable for a given use.
. Altogether 91 timber properties and 175 end-uses are described. Up to 20 different data items can be recorded for each property or end-use, each item labelled with a literature source code. This feature enables the program to show any variation of opinion in the published literature and allows the user to trace the source of the data.
. Information on the timber and utilization properties for around 1300 species has been collated from 1650 published sources. At present, data for almost 1200 of these have been entered into the PROSPECT system. On a regional basis 40% of the species are Asian, 30% Central and South American and 30% are from Africa.
.PROSPECT is available for use within the OFI on an IBM-compatible microcomputer. In 1994 full copies of the most recent version of the database were distributed to all 52 member countries of ITTO.
Taxonomic and Genetic Databases (BRAHMS, FROGGIE, SISTEM+)
Research staff: Mr D.L. Filer, Dr W. Hawthorne
BRAHMS (Botanical Research AndH erbarium Management System)
FROGGIE (Forest Reserves Of Ghana: Graphical Interface Exhibitor)
SISTEM+ (Species Information, Seed, Trials and Environment Data Management)
Denis Filer and William Hawthorne have continued the development of the forestry and biodiversity information systems BRAHMS, FROGGIE and SISTEM+. These systems deal with the elementary units of forestry and botanical work such as species and gazetteer names, seedlots, herbarium specimens, individual tree details, forestry trials, plantation units and reserves. As well as providing useful computing support for individual research workers, the packages have been designed to assist at the institutional level. In particular, they provide management and planning tools for seed banks, herbaria, forestry projects and a broad range of botanical, forestry and ecological research programmes.
Development work on BRAHMS continues, in close collaboration with projects in several countries, each with different data management requirements. A key area of activity has been the strengthening of capability to store and process nomenclatural information. As a result, BRAHMS can now prepare a full nomenclature for taxonomic treatments, assembling accepted names, authors, protologue citations, synonyms, types and other details, formatting these, along with uncertain and excluded names, to near journal-specific standard. Synonyms can be presented chronologically or in homotypic groups. Facilities to handle homonyms, illustrations as types and original material have been included. Earlier in the year, work was completed on the module for preparing specimen citation lists. As with the nomenclatural output, citation lists can be sorted and formatted to match specifications of most journals. Specimens can be explicitly tagged for inclusion in lists (and/or maps). Facilities to prepare annotated species checklists and related output were extended. Taxa in checklists can now be sorted within family groups (Bryophytes, Monocotyledons, etc.) and lists can include species descriptions specific to the checklist area, rather than the species as a whole. The data import process has been improved by adding a greater number of import control options and with the creation of a new Import Control Reporter (ICR) to monitor the import process. The value of the new ICR module was first demonstrated at the East
African Herbarium where pre-checks on RDE files holding
their entire Orchidaceae and Apocynaceae collections and collections from several checklist areas, enabled all incorrect or doubtful names to be checked prior to loading.
Having entered one's data, the challenge is to present the output in stimulating and convenient ways. In the botanical and biogeographical context, this often boils down to maps. Tree plots with up to 500,000 records per plot can now be stored. Rubber grids have been implemented to allow simple change of map reference system between certain categories of projects easily. Cross-hatching has been implemented. All map data file are now based on a spacial index structure, thereby allowing them to be any size. The first maps were printed (Acacia karroo) showing species distribution and allele proportions on a non-standard projection of Africa. On related ODA projects, substantial progress was made with mapping biodiversity in Paso Forest Reserve; the resolution of the FROGGIE package was increased to the sub-plot level for work in Ghana; components of all project software are being utilized in the production of a silvicultural guide to Ghana's trees.
Three main categories of work were carried out on SISTEM+ this year. The seed handling modules were upgraded; the use of the package for handling trials and forestry research data was enhanced; and system documentation was greatly extended. Much of the work on SISTEM+ this year was carried out in collaboration with ODA projects in Malawi (FRIM) and Sri Lanka (FORRI). In Malawi, two separate SISTEM+ databases were established. The Tree Seed Centre database is managing information concerning species, provenance areas, stand categories, seed accessions, seed storage, seed testing, seed pricing, customer details and seed dispatches. The Forestry Research database is managing information concerning all categories of research trial including mensuration plots, tree breeding, entomology, agroforestry and indigenous forests. In Sri Lanka, the database is being used to store summary descriptions of all national forestry and forestryrelated research activities, completed or otherwise, scanning back to the earliest records known. The project was initially devised to provide essential background information for the formulation of a national forestry research master plan. Thereafter, it has been further developed as a valuable and compact source of forest research information, constituting a comprehensive stock-take of national forestry research, to be maintained and up-dated, and to distribute to the scientific community and other interested persons.
Introductory tutorial guides have been prepared for BRAHMS and the seed manager module SISTEM+.
This is the ninth year of the Resource Centre Scheme whereby the ODA commissions OFI staff to act as consultants and advisors on short-term assignments overseas, based on requests from the Geographical Desks. Again this has been a successful exercise and during the year 371 days of manpower have been used in the countries listed below.
To install computer hardware and software in a working network, train one or more persons in the management of same and to prepare a simple manual of procedures for the CPATU Rainforest Silviculture Project (Dr C.J. Goodwin-Bailey).
To provide advice and assistance with research on reproductive biology and with management of provenance trials, progeny tests and seed orchards of key tree species for CPATU Rainforest Silviculture Project (Dr A.J. Simons).
To support and advise on the ecological activities at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station within the Caxiuana National Forest (Dr N.D. Brown).
To participate in the Western Ghats Forestry Project research workshop and provide support and assistance to the Karnataka Forest Department in the development of tree improvement research strategy on the project (Mr A.J. Pottinger).
To finalise the details of the first year of the Link project with IFGTB, Coimbatore and with CSIRO in Australia (Dr P.S. Bacon).
Contribute to the completion of the Monograph on the Pines (Pinus) of Latin America, completing the unfinished work of Dr Brian Styles (Mr A. Farjon).
Analyse data and interpret results of trials and seed orchards at CONSEFORH. Write report and provide technical overview and evaluation (Mrs J.S. Birks - three trips).
To further pursue the development of BRAHMS database facility for the specimen data of the East African Herbarium taking account of the previous consultancy visits and recommendations of the NMK Biodiversity Database Group (Mr D.L. Filer).
Assess the status and progress of the tree improvement and conservation programme and develop and advise on the execution of a work programme (Dr R.D. Barnes).
Consultancy to review the ODA funded project "Foundations for sustainable management of bioresources of rain forest in South East Asia" (Dr J. Burley).
Consultancy to review the ODA funded project above and review the administrative and financial procedures of the other projects currently funded by ODA at FRIM (Dr P.S. Bacon).
Evaluate activity under the Participatory Rural Appraisal component of the agroforestry programme of the OFI/University of Peradeniya at the Link Workshop and assist a student (Miss O.J. Webley).
Liaise with the Link directors during the OFI/UP Workshop at the University of Peradeniya (Dr J. Burley).
Evaluate activity under the Natural Forest Ecology component of the OFI/University of Peradeniya Link Workshop and assist a DPhil student (Dr N.D. Brown).
Assist with the administration of the OFI/ University of Peradeniya Link Workshop and assist in the preparation of documentation pertaining to the proposed future development of the Link (Dr P.S. Bacon).
Assess developments under the Forest Genetic Resources research component of the OFI/University of Peradeniya Workshop and advise on future developments; assist post graduate staff as required (Ms J.L. Stewart).
Following review of Tree Breeding Programme carried out in March 1994, consultancy to determine how the various recommendations can be incorporated into the Programme and also to produce a Plan of Work for 1995/96 which reflects these changes (Dr R.D. Barnes).
A new second Resource Centre Scheme has been established as a result ODA's decision in 1993 to phase out our 'Core' grant and instead purchase our services in the form of man/woman days. These services include such activities as the provision of advice, information and publications to developing countries and developing country visitors, particularly when concerned with ODA bilateral interests; computing, maintenance and use of data bases; and the travel costs of the Director in his capacity as Vice-President of IUFRO. This scheme requires each member of the academic and research staff to list the details of their activity and the time involved on a form for each quarter of the year, which is then converted into man/woman days and claimed accordingly. No separate letters of assignment are issued for this. The scheme is still in its infancy and experiencing teething troubles which should recede in time.
In 1989 the ODA published its Renewable Natural Resources Research Strategy for the next decade. It sets out the priorities for ODA support for strategic research on renewable natural resources with a view to meeting the needs of developing countries. Since 1990 the OFI has been responsible for the management of the Forestry and Agroforestry Strategy Programme. This has an annual budget of £3.6m for the financial year 1994/95.
The Forestry and Agroforestry Strategy Programme is divided into three main areas (profiles), each with two sub-divisions for administrative purposes. These are:-
Establishment, management and improvement of plantations and agroforestry
Inventory, management and conservation of natural forests
The priorities assigned are high, medium and medium respectively. This is reflected in the financial allocation from ODA which is in the ratio 70:20:10 and it is this ratio which largely determines the number of projects that are approved in each area. Since 1992 ODA has required a proportion of the budget to be spent on adaptive research in order to assist the implementation of results from strategic research. This is currently 15%. During 1994, 16 new strategic projects were approved and six adaptive. For the Programme as a whole the table below shows the breakdown of all projects, active in 1994, by area together with the total cost.
During 1994, ODA published a revised Renewable Natural Resources Research Strategy for the 10-year period 1995-2005. This strategy specifies the developmental aims and objectives for Forestry Research and introduces a number of new concepts. These include:
During 1995 a new strategic plan will be prepared for the Programme. All enquiries concerning the Programme should be addressed to:
Ms Anne Bradley
Forestry Research Programme
Halifax House, 6 South Parks Road
Oxford OX1 3UB
Tel: (01865) 271036, Fax: (01865) 271035
Area No. of Total % of % OFI Projects Cost ŁK Total Cost A1 28 4030 35.6 28.6 A2 27 4179 36.9 2.6 55 8209 72.5 31.2 Total A B1 6 520 4.6 --- B2 12 1748 15.5 5.8 Total B 18 2268 20.1 5.8 8 732 6.5 2.3 C1 C2 1 104 0.9 --- Total C 9 836 7.4 2.3 Total 82 11313 100.0 39.3
The TFRG expanded its consortium membership to 15 with the accession of Birdlife International, the Natural History Museum, the Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew), and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. The full membership is as follows:-
The Group met four times during the year including an open day to which staff of ODA and other agencies were invited to hear presentations highlighting the collective capabilities of the TFRG; in addition Mr K Bell gave a valuable introduction to the structure, activities and funding sources of the European Union as a guide to collective bidding for EU-financed projects.
Various members continued to collaborate on projects in Belize, Brazil, Malaysia and Zambia. The TFRG expressed some interest in 30 project announcements by Asian Development Bank, EU and World Bank; it eventually bid for ten, was shortlisted for five, and were still awaiting decisions on three.
The ODA funding for this project is scheduled to continue to mid 1996 so it was considered appropriate during this year to consider possibilities for further funding. This was discussed in detail during a workshop held in Sri Lanka from 28 November to 2 December. The workshop provided a platform for presenting the findings from all four research projects and to draft a proposal for funding beyond the existing phase. The proceedings of the workshop are currently in preparation.
During the year there were a number of visits to OFI in connection with the Peradeniya Link including a visit from the Link Director, Prof Gunasena and the Head of the Sri Lankan forestry planning unit. Training placements have continued with a total of four Sri Lankan students undertaking post graduate training in the UK and four more undertaking post graduate study in Sri Lanka but supervised by collaborators from OFI. Among the UK-based Sri Lankan students three have been accepted for Doctoral placements. A faculty member from the University of Peradeniya attended the OFI biodiversity course and subsequently attended a professional attachment at the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, India, funded by the Link. All the UK nominated scientific collaborators have visited Sri Lanka during the year and have completed tour reports as has the UK based Link Director and the Project Manager.
Six students from OFI successfully completed technical attachments to the four research projects and they contributed significantly to the workshop held in November. The work programmes of the students strongly supported the field research being undertaken by the Sri Lankan students.
Significant highlights of the research include continuing efforts to elucidate the breeding biology of Jak (Artocarpus heterophyllus ). Under the Forest Genetics component field trials have been established to assess a range of foreign germplasm with potential for improving the resistance of Leucaena to psyllid attack. Improved lines of Gliricidia and Calliandra are also under going field testing. The natural forest ecology component has directed effects to studying dry zone forest ecology and a network of sample plots have now been established.
Link with Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
The programme of ten research projects was reviewed jointly by the OFI Director and ODA in June 1994. The review found that while most of the projects were achieving measurable progress in research output, one or two appeared to have made less progress than might have been expected given the terms of the project document. An attempt was made following the review to refocus projects currently perceived to be under-achieving. During the year two FRIM staff completed their PhD's and one student completed an MSc. A total of eight weeks of professional attachment training were completed by various Malaysian scientists and one candidate successfully completed the three month course on Research Methods run at OFI. In addition to visits to Malaysia from OFI by the Project Manager and the Institute Director, five UK collaborators visited Malaysia under the programme for a total of ten person weeks. The research is providing new insights into the distribution, phenology and biology of bamboos in Malaysia. There is also new information emerging on the influence of logging practices on the distribution of fauna in tropical rainforests. The phytochemical studies have discovered new chemicals from Malaysian plant species some of which show activity against disease causing organisms. The inventory studies are helping build a depth of expertise at FRIM capable of unravelling the complex taxonomic challenges presented by the unique regional flora.
Link with Indian Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding
Despite the lack of a formal contract to proceed with this project various undertakings have been implemented. A nine month professional attachment was formulated at OFI and completed by a staff member of IFGTB. Three staff members of IFGTB were funded under the Darwin Initiative to attend a course on biodiversity at Oxford. The Link Projects Manager visited IFGTB in October to redefine the project and to get approval for the redrafted project from the Director of the Indian Council of Forest Research and Education. Inputs planned to be included from Australia were discussed during a subsequent visit to the Australian Tree Seed Centre and the Queensland Forestry Department. A contract to proceed with this project was finally agreed by ODA in December. This was marked by a management workshop held at Coimbatore in the same month. The workshop was given by a consultant and supported by the Director OFI and the OFI Links Manager.
Link with CATIE Tree Improvement Project, Costa Rica
The second year of this three year project has seen the completion of two OFI student placements and their replacements by one graduate from the 1994 batch and one student scheduled to start in 1995. The students assist with routine duties on the Tree Improvement Project such as trial thinning assessment and management and they have also been involved with extension activities. Two OFI graduates have produced a detailed economic analysis of the benefits of using improved germplasm for tree planting in Costa Rica - the first time such an exercise has been undertaken. An increasing amount of good quality extension information is being assessed and distributed by the TIP and there is evidence for considerable farmer-led demand for improved germplasm.
Database of Weeds and Invasive Plant Species
Invasive woody plants and weed have special implications for forestry. Owing to the lack of a universal, readily accessible database of weeds or invasive plant species, this project was set up to review the botanical databases already established, and the possibilities for creating a worldwide database that can be used by anyone who needs to extract relevant information.
The ODA-funded project R6167 is of six months duration and it is in being carried out in collaboration with Long Ashton Research Station (Dr Hugh Frost). The project is designed to complement the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE) initiative. The objectives of the project are as follows:-
By the end of 1994 a literature search on weeds and invasive plant species had been largely completed and relevant material collected. Many UK based researchers working on weeds and invasive plants had already been contacted, whilst contact with overseas researchers had been initiated. Also, consultation on the structures of appropriate databases had begun.
There have been exchanges of information with projects in Honduras, Namibia, Tanzania and Botswana and Sri Lanka. Several of these have resulted from visits to OFI by colleagues from overseas. Small commissions from the British Council have been undertaken in support of attachment training and visits from overseas.
Honorary Appointments and External Visits
Ghana - Preparations for and design of fieldwork for ODA research project R5590.
India - Session discussion leader at International Workshop on India's Forest Management and Ecological Revival.
Italy - Preparatory meeting for FAO Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products.
Netherlands - Examiner at University of Twente; gather information for ODA research project R5590.
USA - Present invited paper to IFPRI Workshop on Non-Timber Tree Product Market Research; discussions with collaborators on ODA research project R5590.
Director, Nature Conservation Bureau, UK.
Malaysia - To prepare annual budgets and the 3rd six monthly report to ODA.
Member, FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources.
Member, Commonwealth Forestry Association Executive Committee.
Member, Commonwealth Forestry Association Governing Council.
Member, Commonwealth Forestry Association Publications Committee.
Member, Commonwealth Development Corporation Scientific Panel.
Member, ODA's Forestry Research Programme Advisory Committee.
South Africa - OFI pine trial network; leaf peroxidase study of Acacia karroo in ODA research project R4256; discuss proposed Acacia trial network at FORESTEK.
Zimbabwe - Exploration and seed collection for ODA research project R5655; Acacia trials establishment on R5653; RCS assignment to ODA's Forestry Research Project at the FRC, Harare.
Swaziland - OFI pine trial network; discuss Usutu/OFI pine pulp study.
Denmark - Visit DFSC to discuss International provenance rials of Pinus kesiya, African Acacia trials network and ex situ pine conservation stands.
Honduras - Data analysis course for CONSEFORH, August, and analysis of data from the project trials, November-December.
Costa Rica and Honduras - Conduct fieldwork for ODA research project R5729, January-May. Review progress of CATIE/OFI/ODA research project R5399.
Thailand - CIFOR/IPGRI Biodiversity Workshop, Chiang Mai, August.
Member of the Royal Society South-East Asian Rain Forest Committee.
Member of NERC Core Group for Forest Science Programme.
Sri Lanka - Review of natural forest ecology and management programme of ODA Link Project with the University of Peradeniya.
Brazil - ODA/CPATU Rain Forest Silviculture Project in the Tapajos National Forest and Moju Forest, Para.
Brunei - Rehabilitation of degraded forest consultancy.
Colombia, Japan - Attend Sixteenth and Seventeenth sessions of the International Tropical Timber Organization.
Guyana, Costa Rica, Honduras, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka- Promote and disseminate ITTO/ODA/OFI 'PROSPECT' database computer programme.
Vice President (Programme) and Member of Executive Board, IUFRO.
Director-at-Large, International Society of Tropical Foresters.
Member, Board of Directors, Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association.
Member, Executive Committee, Commonwealth Forestry Association.
Member, Agricultural and Veterinary Advisory Committee, British Council.
Ghana - Consultant/speaker, ODA/BC symposium on forest land use options: conflicts and solutions.
Costa Rica - US Forest Service consultant, USFS strategic planning for tropical forestry research.
Canada - Leslie L Schaffer Lecturer at the University of British Columbia.
China - World Bank forestry research programme review.
Sweden - Invited speaker, IVA international symposium on forest products and future society.
Malaysia - FRIM Research Advisory Committee meeting.
Kenya - Speaker, IFS/AAS international symposium on supporting capacity building in forestry research in Africa.
Austria & Finland - IUFRO Policy and Planning Committee meeting.
Thailand - Invited overview paper at IUFRO symposium on measuring and monitoring biodiversity in tropical and temperate forests.
Sweden - Keynote speaker, Marcus Wallenberg Foundation Prize Ceremony.
Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua - Exploration, collection and evaluation of Calliandra, March-April and October-December.
Costa Rica - NFTA workshop: Acid Tolerant NFTs, June.
Co-chair of the IUFRO Acacia Working Group S1.07-19.
Senegal - Participated in a F. albida workshop at ISRA/DRPF in Dakar.
Mozambique, Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe - Exploration and seed collection of Acacia and Faidherbia species on ODA research project R5655.
Germany - Presented a paper on world conservation status of conifers at International Dendrology Society symposium on conservation of temperate trees, Bonn, Germany, September.
Vienna, Florence & Paris - Visits to herbaria, October.
Brazil- Reviewing database requirements (with William Hawthorne) at CPATU, Belem.
Malawi - Establishing seed management and forestry research databases at FRIM.
Kenya - Continuing work on the establishment of the botanical database at the East African Herbarium.
Malaysia - To present a paper at the meeting on, "Periodicity of growth in tropical trees", Kuala Lumpur. Organized jointly by Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) in collaboration with IUFRO P5.05 on Tree-Ring Analysis and the Institute of Wood Biology, University of Hamburg, Germany. Financial support from Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).
Brazil - MSc course in application of molecular methods to assessment of cerrado biodiversity.
Senegal - Attended workshop in genetic variation and reproductive biology in Faidherbia albida.
Brazil - Advise on databases to CPATU, Belem, and field guide production at INPA, Manaus.
Belize - Participated in mid-term review of ODA's forest management project.
Ghana - Environmental impact assessment of teak plantation project.
Co-chair IUFRO Working Party S2.02.08 - Tropical Species and Provenances.
Indonesia - LEUCNET Workshop, January.
Chairman, Fungus Survey of Oxfordshire.
Kenya - 3 visits to the Kenya Forestry Research Institute and various field sites in lowland forest areas in connection with EU-funded research project ERB-TS3*CT92-0124.
Seychelles - Short visit to diagnose unexplained deaths of Takamaka on the shoreline of Mahe.
Spain - Attendance at the 4th European Mycorrhiza Symposium in Granada. Project liaison meeting of participants in Granada.
Chair, Advisory Board to UK Soil Association's Responsible Forestry Programme.
Associate Editor, New Forests.
Costa Rica & Honduras - Collaboration with ODA tree improvement projects.
Indonesia - CIFOR strategic planning meeting, February.
Thailand - IUFRO conference "Measuring and monitoring biodiversity", and CIFOR/IPGRI/FAO in situ conservation workshops.
Leader, IUFRO Project Group P5.01 Utilisation of Tropical Timbers.
Member of the Membership Committee of the Institute of Wood Science.
Uganda On an unofficial visit but discussions held with Uganda FD staff and memo written on Uganda forestry situation.
Member of the UK Tropical Forest Forum Biodiversity Working Group.
External examiner for Forestry BSc for University of Aberdeen.
Convenor of examiners for Institute of Chartered Foresters Part 1 examinations.
Deputy Chairman of IUFRO Group on Genetics and Breeding of Oaks.
Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico - Exploration, collection and evaluation of Gliricidia.
Brazil - Studies on reproductive ecology and genetics of commercial Amazonian species.
Member, Editorial Board, Journal of Arid Environments.
Sri Lanka - Two visits, to monitor progress of Gliricidia sepium feeding trial and collect leaf samples for analysis, and ODA Resource Centre Scheme mission to attend OFI-University of Peradeniya Link Workshop.
Australia - To discuss collaboration in research on Leucaena and Calliandra fodder quality.
Indonesia - To monitor progress of Gliricidia sepium feeding trial, and collect leaf samples for analysis.
Colombia - To monitor progress of Gliricidia sepium feeding trial, and collect leaf samples for analysis.
Costa Rica - To monitor progress of Gliricidia sepium feeding trial, and collect leaf samples for analysis.
Honduras - Two visits, to plan and implement a fodder preference experiment with Leucaena.
Secretary to the Governing Body of Trinity College, Oxford.
Portugal - MSc tour in March.
Sri Lanka - Agroforestry research project, University of Peradeniya Link.
Tanzania - Fieldwork for ODA research project R5532.
Examiner, Institute of Chartered Foresters, Part II examination.
Member, ODA Forestry Professional Coordinating Group.
Indonesia/Thailand - Attended workshop on Leucaena; visited CIFOR headquarters; discussions with Forestry Advisers, SEADD, Bangkok.
Washington - Participated in workshop on plantations at the World Bank.
Arnold, J.E.M. (1994). The importance of tree products in rural income and employment. Invited paper, IFPRI Workshop on Non-Timber Tree Product Market Research, Annapolis, USA, 12-14 December 1994.
Arnold, J.E.M. (1994). Socio-economic benefits and issues in non-wood forest products use. Invited paper, FAO Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 17-27 January 1995.
Arnold, J.E.M. (1994). Nonfarm employment in small-scale forest-based enterprises: policy and environmental issues. Working Paper No.11, The Environmental and Natural Resources Policy and Training Project, EPAT/MUCIA, ISSN 1072-9496, 49p.
Arnold, J.E.M., Liedholm, C., Mead, D. & Townson, I.M. (1994). Structure and growth of small enterprises using forest products in southern and eastern Africa. OFI Occasional PaperNo. 47, Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford, 34p.
Barnes, R.D. (1994). Book Review. Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. First edition. Edited by Eldridge, K.G., Davidson, J., Harwood, C.E. & van Wyk, G. Oxford University Press, 288p. Commonwealth Forestry Review 73: 133-134.
Barnes, R.D., Birks, J.S., Battle, G. & Mullin, L.J. (1994). The genetic control of ring width, wood density and tracheid length in the juvenile core of Pinus patula. The South African Forestry Journal 169: 15-20.
Barnes, R.D. & Simons, A.J. (1994). Selection and breeding to conserve and utilise tropical tree germplasm. In: Tropical trees: the potential for domestication and the rebuilding of forest resources. Edited by Leakey, R.R.B. & Newton, A.C. London, HMSO, 84-90.
Barnes, R.D., Simons, A.J. & MacQueen, D.J. (1994). Domestication of new hard wood tree species for non-industrial use. In: Proceedings of IUFRO Conference Breeding Tropical Trees, Cali, Colombia, 9-18 October 1992. Edited by Lambeth, C. & Dvorak, W., 372-385.
Boshier, D.H. (1994). Cordia alliodora a fuller picture of reproductive biology. In: Proceedings of IUFRO Conference Breeding Tropical Trees, Cali, Colombia, 9-18 October 1992. Edited by Lambeth, C. & Dvorak, W., 29-37.
Burley, J. (1994). Biodiversity research at Oxford. Oxford Environment News, Hilary Term 1994, 3-4.
Burley, J. (1994). Forestry and biodiversity - the researcher's perspective. Keynote address in Proceedings of IVA International Symposium on Forest products and future society, IVA (Swedish Engineering Academy), Stockholm, Sweden, 17-29.
Burley, J. (1994). Forestry research in Africa: the role of the Oxford Forestry Institute and the Overseas Development Administration's strategic forestry research programme in supporting capacity building. Keynote address at international symposium on Supporting capacity building in forestry research in Africa. International Foundation for Science and African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.
Burley, J. (1994). World forestry: the professional scientific challenges. Leslie L. Schaffer Lecture in Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 18p.
Burley, J. (1994). Biodiversity in development and conservation . Invited paper, ODA/BC symposium on Forest land use options: conflicts and solutions, Kumasi, Ghana, 15p.
Burley, J. (1994). Opening address to Worldwide Fund for Nature seminar. In Proceedings of: A future for forests: countdown to 1995, WWF, Godalming, UK, 8-9.
Burley, J. (1994). Genetic conservation and tree breeding in the tropics. Invited paper, Marcus Wallenberg Prize Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 11p.
Burley, J. (1994). Sustainable forest management and global initiatives. Discussion Paper, IUFRO News Vol.23(3): 6-7.
Burley, J. & Gauld, I. (1994). Measuring and monitoring forest biodiversity: a commentary. Invited paper in Proceedings of IUFRO symposium Measuring and monitoring biodiversity in tropical and temperate forests, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 20p.
Fagg, C.W. & Stewart, J.L. (1994). The value of Acacia and Prosopis in arid and semi-arid environments. Journal of Arid Environment 26: 3-25.
Farjon, A. (1994). Cupressus cashmeriana (Cupressaceae) . Kew Magazine 11(3): 156-166.
Farjon, A. & Hunt, D.R. (1994). (1088) Proposal to conserve Thujopsis Endl. against Dolophyllum Salisb. (Cupressaceae). Taxon 43(2): 291-292.
Filer, D.L. (1994) BRAHMS (Botanical Research And Herbarium Management System). A pocket introduction and demonstration guide. OFI, 28p.
Gourlay, I.D. & Barnes, R.D. (1994). Seasonal growth zones in the wood of Acacia karroo Hayne: their definition and implications. Commonwealth Forestry Review 73(2): 121-127.
Gourlay, I.D. & Grime G.W. (1994). Calcium oxalate crystals in African Acacia species and their analysis by scanning proton microprobe (SPM). IAWA Journal 15(2): 137-148.
Grassly, N., Harris, S.A., & Cronk, Q.C.B. (1994). British Apium repens (Jacq.) Lagasca assessed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Report to JNCC.
Harris, S.A., Fagg, C.W., & Barnes, R.D. (1994). Evaluation of the genetic resources and study of the reproductive biology of Faidherbia albida (Del.) A. Chev. for its improved uses in agroforestry. F. albida workshop at ISRA/DRPF Dakar, Senegal, March 20-26, 1994, 11p.
Harris, S.A., Hughes, C.E., Abbott, R.J. & Ingram, R. (1994). Genetic diversity in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Silvae Genetica 43 : 159-167.
Harris, S.A., Hughes, C.E., Ingram, R. & Abbott, R.J. (1994). A phylogenetic analysis of Leucaena (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) . Plant Systematics and Evolution 191: 1-26.
Harris, S.A. & Robinson, J. (1994). Preservation of tropical plant material for molecular analysis. In: Conservation of plant genes II: utilisation of ancient and modern DNA. Edited by Adams, R.P., Miller, J.S., Golenberg, E.M. & Adams, J.E. Missouri Botanical Garden, 83-92.
Hawthorne, W.D. (1994). Fire damage and forest regeneration in Ghana. ODA Forestry Series, No.4. NRI, Chatham.
Honrubia, M., Ivory, M.H., Mwangi, L.M. & Mburu, B.K. (1994). Ectomycorrhiza synthesis on indigenous and exotic forest trees in Kenya. Poster at 4th European Mycorrhiza Symposium, Granada, Spain, 11-14.07.94. Dept. Forestry, Seychelles, 4p.
Hughes, C.E. & Harris, S.A. (1994). The identification and characterisation of a naturally occurring hybrid in Leucaena (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 192: 177-197.
Ivory, M.H. (1994). Records of foliage pathogens of Pinus species in tropical countries. Plant Pathology 43(3): 511-518.
Ivory, M.H., Honrubia, M., Mburu, B.K. & Mwangi, L.M. (1994). Putative ectomycorrhizal fungi from native and exotic forests in Kenya. Paper presented at 4th European Mycorrhiza Symposium, Granada, Spain, 11-14.07.94.
Kigomo, B.N., Woodell S.R., & Savill, P.S. (1994). Phenological patterns and some aspects of reproductive biology of Brachylaena huillensis. African Journal of Ecology 32: 296-307.
Mandal, A.K., Ennos, R.A. & Fagg, C.W. (1994). Mating system analysis in a natural population of Acacia nilotica subspecies leiocarpa. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 89: 931-35.
Martin, F., Di Battista, C., Delaruelle, C., Ivory, M.H. & Mwangi, L.M. (1994). Typing of Kenyan ectomycorrhizal fungi using PCR-based techniques. Poster at 4th European Mycorrhiza Symposium, Granada, Spain, 11-14.07.94.
Mather, R.A., Savill, P.S. (1994) The commercial impact of shake in Great Britain. Forestry 67(2): 119-131.
Mesen, J.F., Boshier D.H. & Cornelius J.P. (1994). Genetic improvement of trees in Central America, with particular reference to Costa Rica. In: Tropical trees: the potential for domestication and the rebuilding of forest resources. Edited by Leakey, R.R.B. & Newton, A.C. London, HMSO, 249-255.
Nyoka, B.I., Birks, J.S., Gumbie, C.M. (1994). Pinus patula progeny tests: heritability estimates and genetic correlations between fifth and eighth-year traits. Sud-Afrikaanse Bosbontydskrit 168.
Pearce, R.B., Sümer, S., Doran, S.J., Carpenter, T.A., Hall, L.D. (1994). Non-invasive imaging of fungal colonization and host response in the living sapwood of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using nuclear magnetic resonance. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 45: 359-384.
Pottinger, A.J. (1994). Establishment of clone banks from plus trees selected in the OFI international pine trial network. Commonwealth Forestry Review 73(1): 23-27.
Pottinger, A.J. & Hughes, C.E. (1994). A review of wood quality in Leucaena. In: Proceedings of the International Leucaena Research and Development Workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, 24-29 January, 1994.
Pswarayi, I.Z. & Barnes, R.D. (1994). Genetic gains expected from phenotypic and combined index selection in Pinus elliottii . Research Papers No. 5. Division of Research and Development, Zimbabwe Forestry Commission.
Sheil, D. (1994). Naturalised and invasive plant species in the evergreen forests of the East Usambara Mountains Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 32: 66-71.
Sheil, D. (1994). Invasive plants in tropical forest - warnings from the Amani Botanic Gardens, Tanzania. Botanic Gardens Conservation News 2(2): 23-24.
Simons, A.J., MacQueen, D.J. & Stewart, J.L. (1994). Strategic concepts in the breeding of non-industrial trees. In: Tropical trees: the potential for domestication and the rebuilding of forest resources. Edited by Leakey, R.R.B. & Newton, A.C. London, HMSO, 91-102.
Simons, A.J. & Stewart, J.L. (1994). Gliricidia sepium - a multipurpose fodder tree legume. In: Fodder tree legumes in tropical agriculture. Edited by Gutteridge, R.C. & Shelton, H.M. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 30-48.
Smith, J.P., Brazier, J.D., Burclaff, V.T. & Dorey, C.E. (1994). "PROSPECT" for improved use of tropical timbers . Tropical Forestry Paper No. 28, Oxford Forestry Institute, 62p.
Stewart, J.L.& Dunsdon, A.J. (1994). Performance of 25 Central American dry zone hardwoods in a pantropical series of species elimination trials. Forest Ecology and Management 65(2/3): 183-193.
Stewart, J.L. & Simons, A.J. (1994). Opportunities and limitations of Gliricidia sepium. In: Proceedings of the International Leucaena Research and Development Workshop, Bogor, Indonesia, 24-29 January, 1994.
Wright, J.A. (1994) Utilization of Pinus Patula: an annotated bibliography. OFI Occasional Paper No.45, Oxford Forestry Institute, 73p.
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